Thursday, 11 August 2011

SYLLABI FOR MASTER OF ENGINEERING (CHEMICAL) (FIRST AND SECOND SEMESTER) OF PUNJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH

SCHEME OF TEACHING AND EXAMINATION
Theory Subject Teaching
Hours per
Week
Exam.
Marks
Sessional
Marks
Total
Marks
FIRST SEMESTER L T P C
1.1 Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
1.2 Advanced Fluid Mechanics 3 1 - 4 50 50 100
1.3 Advanced Mass Transfer 3 1 - 4 50 50 100
1.4 Chemical Engineering

Thermodynamics
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
1.5 Advanced Transport
Phenomena
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
Total 15 5 - 20 250 250 500
L: Lectures/Week
T: Tutorials/Week
P: Practical Hours/Week
C: Number of Credits
2
Theory Subject Teaching
Hours per
Week
Exam.
Marks
Sessional
Marks
Total
Marks
SECOND SEMESTER L T P C
2.1 Advanced Heat Transfer 3 1 - 4 50 50 100
2.2 Distillation 3 1 - 4 50 50 100
2.3 Chemical Reaction
Engineering
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
2.4 Advanced Process
Dynamics & Control
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
2.5 Process Modelling &
Simulation
3 1 - 4 50 50 100
Practicals
2.5.1 Process Modelling &
Simulation
- - 3 2 25 25 50
Total 15 5 3 22 275 275 550
3
(THIRD AND FOURTH SEMESTERS)
EXAMINATIONS 2010 - 2011
SCHEME OF TEACHING AND EXAMINATION
THIRD AND FOURTH SEMESTERS
Third and fourth semesters will be exclusively devoted to thesis work. The student would be
required to present one term paper by the middle of the third semester and one seminar before the
submission of M.E. thesis and would carry 100 marks each. These would be presented before the
Department Faculty and the students of the Department. The evaluation will be done by a board
consisting of:
(i) Chairman or his nominee
(ii) Thesis Supervisor
(iii) A member of the Department Faculty to be nominated by the Chairman of the
Deaprtment out of a panel of 3 persons to be suggested by the Supervisor.
Allotment of Marks
(i) First Semester 1200
(ii) Second Semester 1300
(iii) Comprehensive Viva 200
(iv) Term Paper 100
(v) Seminar 100
Total Marks 2900
Thesis work will be based on the research work conducted in the Department on an approved topic
under the supervision of a faculty member of the Department or it can be based on the training in
an Industrial/R&D organization of repute under joint supervision of one supervisor from the
industry and the other from the Department.
Note: No numerical marks are to be assigned to thesis work. It is either
“Accepted” or “Rejected”. Quality of work reported in the thesis can be
graded in terms of “Very Good”, “Good” or “Average”.
4
SYLLABUS FOR
M. E. (CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)
FIRST SEMESTER
1.1 MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Numerical solutions of simultaneous and higher order differential equations: Runge-Kutta method,
Picard’s method. Approximate methods for B.V. problems: Finite difference method.
Approximate and numerical solutions of PDE’s: Finite difference approximation to derivatives.
Numerical solutions of elliptic equations (Laplace and Poisson’s equations), Parabolic equations
and Hyperbolic equations.
Integral Functions: Gamma functions, Beta functions, Elliptic integrals and functions and error
functions.
Solution methods for linear difference equations, complementary solutions and particular solutions.
Nonlinear equations (Riccatic equations). (20 Hrs.)
Z-Transforms: Introduction, some standard Z-transforms, linearity property damping rule, some
standard results, shifting rules, initial and final value theorems, convolution theorem, evaluation of
inverse transforms, applications to difference equations. (10 Hrs.)
Fourier Transforms: Introduction, fourier integrals, properties of fourier transforms, convolution
theorem, Parseval’s identity for F-transform, relation between fourier and laplace transforms,
fourier transforms of the derivatives of a function. Applications to boundary value problems.
(10 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Jain, R. K. & Iyengar, S. : Advanced Engg. Mathematics, 2nd Edition, Narosa
Publishing House, New Delhi, 2003.
2. Grewal, B. S. : Higher Engineering Mathematics, Khanna Publishers,
New Delhi, 41st Edition.
3. Kreyszig, Erwin : Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 8th Edition,
Wiley Eastern, New Delhi, 2002.
4. Jain, R.K. : Numerical Solution of Differential Equations, 2nd
Edition, Prentice Hall, 1987.
5. Mickley, H.S., Sherwood, T.K.
and Reed, C.E.
: Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering
6. Sastry, S.S. : Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis
1.2 ADVANCED FLUID MECHANICS
1. Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham, Pi-theorem, Rayleigh method, geometric, kinematic and
dynamic similarity, scale up numerical problems on pumps, drag force and agitation. (5 Hrs.)
2. Differential Equations of fluid flow: Continuity equation for one dimensional and three
dimensional flows. Derivation of momentum equation for three dimensional flow in Cartesian
coordinates. (5 Hrs.)
5
3. Flow of non-viscous flows: Equation of motion (Euler equation) and its integration to obtain
Bernoulli equation, velocity potential and irrotational flow. Streamlines and stream functions for
two dimensional incompressible flow, two dimensional irrotational flow and flow net. (5 Hrs.)
4. Laminar flow of viscous fluids: Effects of viscosity on flow, pressure gradient in steady
uniform flow, use of momentum equations in cylindrical coordinates, velocity profiles in
isothermal flow in circular tubes and annuli and friction factor relations. Flow in infinite parallel
plates and shear stress. Velocity profiles in non-isothermal conditions. (6 Hrs.)
5. Turbulent flow of viscous fluids: Prandtl’s mixing length theory, Reynolds equation for in
compressible turbulent flow. Reynolds stresses, statistical theory of turbulence, intensity of
turbulence, scale of turbulence, measurement of turbulence, hot wire anemometer and its use in
turbulence parameters, isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. (6 Hrs.)
6. Turbulent flow in closed conduits: Prandtl’s power law of velocity distribution, logarithmic
and universal velocity distribution equations for turbulent flow in smooth tubes. Friction factor for
rough and smooth tubes, relationship of u+ and y+ to the friction factor and Reynolds number.
(6 Hrs.)
7. Flow of incompressible fluids past immersed bodies: Von-Karman integral momentum
equation, boundary layer on immersed bodies, equation of two dimensional flow in the boundary
layer, local and total drag coefficients. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow on the flat plate.
(4 Hrs.)
8. General Topics: (a) High velocity measurement techniques for fluids (b) Scale up techniques.
(3 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Knudsen & Katz : Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill Book Co.,
1974.
2. McCabe, Smith & Harriott : Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill
Book Co., 1993.
3. Gupta, Santosh K. : Momentum Transfer Operations, Tata McGraw Hill, 1984.
4. Sissom, L. E. & Pitts, D.R. : Elements of Transport Phenomenon, McGraw Hill, 1972.
5. Nevers Noel de : Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering, 2nd Edition,
McGraw Hill Inc., 1991.
1.3 ADVANCED MASS TRANSFER
General methods of solution of problem in unsteady state molecular diffusion in isotropic media.
Derivation of equations of unsteady-state diffusion for typical cases of mass transfer in infinite,
semi-infinite and finite plane media and in spherical and cylindrical media.
Mechanism of turbulent diffusion in fluids. Application of the concept of the boundary layer
theory and of analogies of momentum heat and mass transfer to turbulent range diffusional
phenomena. A theoretical treatment of inter relationship of mass transfer co-efficient and heat
transfer – co-efficient.
Interphase diffusional phenomena. Steady state and unsteady state theories of diffusion in two
phase systems, significance of hydrodynamic factor in mass transfer between to phases in relative
motion.
6
Mass transfer with Chemical Reactions. Diffusion reaction equations, slow reactions, fast
reactions, transition from low to fast reaction, problems in practice.
Books Recommended:
1. Crank, J. : The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford University
Press, London, 1956.
2. Skelland, A. H. P. : Diffusional Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, !974.
3. Sherwood, T. K., Pigford, R. L.
& Wilke, C. R.
: Mass Transfer, Mc Graw Hill, Chemical Engineering
Series, 1975.
1.4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
1. Phase Equilibrium; Chemical potential, Gibbs Duhem equation & its applications, fugacity &
activity, standard states, thermodynamic properties from volumetric data. (10 Hrs.)
2. Intermolecular forces; Potential energy functions, electrostatic forces, polarizability & induced
dipoles, hydrogen bonds. (6 Hrs.)
3. Fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures, excess functions (Wohl’s expansion, Wilson’s equation,
NRTL equation, UNIQUAC equation). (8 Hrs.)
4. Reaction equilibrium; Effect of temperature and pressure on reaction equilibrium constant,
multi reaction equilibrium, multiphase equilibrium. (8 Hrs.)
5. Vapor-liquid equilibrium; Applications of excess functions to binary mixtures, VLE plots for
tertiary mixtures, estimation of activity coefficients. (8 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Prausnitz, J. M. : Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase equilibrium,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., Eaglewood Cliffs, N. J.,
1986.
2. Smith, J. M., Van ness, H. C.
& Abbott, M. M.
: Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 6th Edition,
McGraw-Hill Intl. Ed., 2001.
3. Narayanan, K. V. : A textbook of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall India, 2001.
4. Kyle, B. G. : Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, 3rd Edition,
Prentice Hall of India, 1999.
1.5 ADVANCED TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Introduction – Mechanism of molecular transport of momentum, heat and mass transfer. Flux
equations – Newton’s, Fourier’s and Fick’s laws. Similarities and differences, Non-Newtonian
fluids, transport properties – estimation, temperature and pressure dependence, estimation of
transport properties of binary gaseous mixtures.
Velocity distributions in laminar flow – shell momentum balances – Flow of falling film – flow of
fluids through circular tubes, annulus and between parallel plates. Creeping flow around sphere –
Drag calculations.
7
Temperature distributions in solids and in laminar flow – shell balances – Heat conduction with
electrical, Nuclear, viscous and chemical heat source, Heat conduction through composite walls,
and cooling fin. Forced convection and free convection.
Concentration distributions in solids and in laminar flow – shell mass balances, diffusion through a
stagnant gas film, Diffusion with homogenous chemical reaction and heterogeneous chemical
reaction. Diffusion into a falling liquid film – chemical reaction inside a porous catalyst.
Equations of change for isothermal systems – Equation of continuity, Equation of Motion,
Equations of change in curvilinear coordinates, use of equations of change to set up steady flow
problems.
Equations of change for non-isothermal systems – Equation of energy – use of equations of change
to set up steady state flow problems.
Equation of change for a binary mixture – Equation of continuity of a component in curvilinear
coordinates.
Unsteady state problems in momentum, energy and Mass Transfer operations.
Turbulence – Time smoothing of equations of change of momentum, energy and mass transfer.
Eddy properties – Intensity of turbulence Reynolds stresses, Semi empirical expressions for
turbulent – momentum – energy and mass fluxes.
Books Recommended:
TEXT BOOKS
1. Bird, R.B., Stewart, W. E.
and Lightfoot, E. N.
: Transport Phenomena, 2nd Edition, John Wiley &
Sons, 2002.
2. Brodkey, R.S. and Hershey,
H.C.
: Transport Phenomena: A Unified Approach, McGraw
Hill Publications, 1988.
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Beek, W.J., Muttzal, K.M.K.
and Van Heuven, J.W.
: Transport Phenomena, 2nd Edition, John Wiley &
Sons.
2. Faghra, A. and Zhang, Y. : Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems,
Academic Press.
3. Slattery, J.C. : Advanced Transport Phenomena, Cambridge
University Press.
8
SYLLABUS FOR
M. E. (CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)
SECOND SEMESTER
2.1 ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER
1. Analysis of Convection Heat Transfer: Convection heat transfer, boundary layer fundamentals,
conservation of mass, momentum and energy for laminar and flow over a flat plate, dimensionless
Boundary – Layer equations & similarity parameters, dimensional analysis, integral equations of
the laminar boundary layer, analysis between momentum and heat transfer over a flat surface;
turbulent flow and turbulent boundary layers analysis, analysis for turbulent flow over a flat
surface.
2. Heat Transfer by Natural Convection: Natural convection, temperature a velocity distribution
in thermal boundary layers, governing equations of mass, momentum and energy for natural
convection past vertical plane surface, approximate integral boundary layer analysis for natural
convection, working correlations for various shapes, natural convection from finned surface,
natural convection in enclosed spaces, natural convection from finned surfaces, mixed free and
forced convection.
3. Forced convection Inside Tubes & Ducts: Analysis of laminar forced convection in long tube,
correlations for laminar forced correction, analogy between heat and momentum transfer in
turbulent flow, working correlations for turbulent forced convection, forced convection in
noncircular sections.
4. Forced Convection over Exterior Surfaces: Flow over bluff bodies, local heat transfer
coefficient distribution around cylinders, effect of various parameters on local heat transfer
coefficient, heat transfer from tube bundles in cross-flow, heat transfer from non-circular sections.
5. Heat Transfer with phase change: Drop wise and film wise condensation, analysis of laminar
film condensation on vertical surfaces, working correlations for various shapes, effects of noncondensable
gases, vapor velocity, sub-cooling of condensate, super heating of vapor, orientation
of tube on condensation heat transfer coefficient, condensation on tube bundles, turbulent film
condensation.
Boiling heat transfer, Pool boiling, forced convective boiling in horizontal and vertical tubes,
sub cooled pool boiling, bubble departure diameter, bubble frequency, nucleation sites, effect of
various parameters on boiling heat transfer coefficient.
6. Heat transfer in fixed bed, heat transfer in fluidized bed, heat transfer in cyclone heat
exchanger.
7. Heat transfer by combined conduction, convection and Radiation: Thermocouple lead error in
surface temperature measurements, heat transfer from radiating fins, the flat plat solar collector, the
heat pipe.
Books Recommended:
1. Kays, W. M. &
Crawford, M. E.
: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd Edition, McGraw
Hill International Editions, 1993.
2. Frank Kreith & Mark S.
Bohn
: Principles of Heat Transfer, 6th Edition, Asian Books Private
Limited, 2001.
3. Ghoshdastidar, P. S. : Heat Transfer, Oxford University Press, 2004.
9
2.2 DISTILLATION
1. Binary vapour-liquid equilibria, p-x-y diagrams, t-x-y diagrams, x-y diagrams, activity
coefficients, relative volatility. Prediction of VLE by UNIFAC method. (3 Hrs.)
2. Graphical methods for estimating stage requirements for binary systems for one feed, two feed,
one feed and one side stream with constant relative volatility. (5 Hrs.)
3. Analytical methods like Fensky and Underwood equations. Smoker equations and its
applications. Methods of estimation of minimum reflux, optimized feed stage and minimum
number of stages. (8 Hrs.)
4. Flash distillation for binary system. Application to multi-component mixtures and numericals.
(5 Hrs.)
5. Batch distillation and its equation. Equations for multi-component mixtures and problems.
(5 Hrs.)
6. Extractive and azeotropic distillation, general considerations for the choice of separating
agents. (4 Hrs.)
7. Multi-component distillation – Heavy key and light key components, Hengstebeck method and
numerical problems. Empirical correlations – Gilliland’s and Colburn & Underwood correlations.
Erbar-Maddox equation. (8 Hrs.)
8. Efficiencies in distillation, different methods. Tray and Hydraulic design. (2 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Hengstebeck, R. J. : Distillation, Reinhold Pub. Corp., N. Y., 1961
2. Smith, B. D. : Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes, McGraw
Hill, N. Y., 1963
3. McCabe, W. L., Smith & Harriott : Unit Operations of Chemical Engg., McGraw Hill,
5th Edition, 1993.
4. Coulson, Richardson & Sinnott : Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6, Pergamon
Press, 1989.
2.3 CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
Review of Fundamental Concepts of Mole Balances: Reaction rate, general mole balance equation.
Mole balance on different reactor types: batch, CSTR and tubular reactors. Industrial reactors.
Conversion and Reactor Sizing: Design equations for isothermal batch and flow systems.
Applications of design equations for CSTR and plug flow reactors, Reactors in series, space time
and space velocity.
Rate Laws and Stoichiometry: Relative rates of reaction, rate constant, elementary reactions, nonelementary
reactions, reversible reactions, batch system stoichiometric table, flow system
stoichiometric table, volume change with reaction.
Isothermal Reactor Design: Design structure for isothermal reactors, scale-up of liquid phase batch
reactor data to design of CSTR, tubular reactors.
10
Collection and Analysis of Rate Data: Differential method and integral method of rate analysis,
method of half-lives, differential reactors. Evaluation of laboratory reactors: fixed bed, stirred batch
reactor, stirred contained solids reactor, continuous-stirred tank reactor, straight-through transport
reactor, recirculating transport reactor. (10 Hrs.)
Multiple Reactions: Conditions for maximizing the desired product in parallel reactions.
Maximizing the desired product in series reactions. Stoichiometric table using fractional conversion
for multiple reactions.
Non-Isothermal Reactor Design: Energy balances: basic ideas about constant or mean and variable
heat capacities, heat added to the reactor. Non-isothermal continuous flow reactors at steady state:
application to the CSTR, adiabatic tubular reactor, steady state tubular reactor with heat exchange.
Multiple steady states (MSS) in a CSTR.
Distribution of Residence Times for Chemical Reactors: General characteristics, measurement of
RTD: pulse input and step tracer experiment. (10 Hrs.)
Catalysis and Catalytic Reactions: Steps in a catalytic reaction, synthesizing a rate law, mechanism
and rate limiting steps, design of reactors for gas-solid reactions, heterogeneous data analysis for
reactor design.
Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts: Molar flux, Fick’s first law, binary diffusion, diffusion
and reaction in spherical catalyst pellets, estimation of diffusion and reaction limited regimes.
(10 Hrs.)
Reactors for Catalytic Reactions: Fluidized reactors: information about suspended solid reactors,
bubbling fluidized bed (BFB), K-L model for BFB and circulating fluidized beds (CFB). Slurry
reactors: rate of gas absorption, transport to catalyst pellet, diffusion and reaction in catalyst pellet,
rate law and determining the rate limiting step, slurry reactor design. Fixed bed catalytic reactor:
mass transfer and reaction in packed bed.
Models for Non-Ideal Reactors: One parameter models: the tank-in-series model and the dispersion
model. Two parameter models: real CSTR modeled with an exchange volume and real CSTR
modeled using bypassing dead space. (10 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Fogler, H. S. : Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th Edition, Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2007.
2. Levenspiel, O. : Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Edition,Wiley India Pvt Ltd.,
2007.
3. Smith, J. M. : Chemical Engineering Kinetics, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 1981.
11
2.4 ADVANCED PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
1. A brief review of the dynamic behavior of control systems, control valves and valve
characteristics. Stability of control systems by root locus method using P, PI and PID controllers, ¼
decay ratio criterion. (5 Hrs.)
2. A brief review of frequency response technique, Ziegler-Nichols controller tuning rules, Bode
and Nyquist plots, Bode-Nyquist stability criterions, development of empirical models from
frequency response data: Graphical methods for 1st order plus dead time and 2nd order plus dead
time processes. (8 Hrs.)
3. Advanced Control Strategies:
Cascade control: Closed loop behavior and controller design for cascade control.
Feed forward control: Logic of feed forward control, designing of feed forward controllers,
practical aspects on the design of feed forward controllers, feed forward-feed back control, ratio
control.
Feed back control systems with large dead time: Smith Predictor scheme.
Selective Control Systems: Override control and Auctioneering control systems
Adaptive and Inferential control. (12 Hrs.)
4. Multivariable Control: State space representation of physical systems, transfer function matrix,
interaction of control loops, relative gain array and selection of loops, design of non-interacting
control loops: Decouplers. (8 Hrs.)
5. Model based control: Direct synthesis method (DSM)-controller design based on process
model and desired closed loop transfer function. Internal Model Control- basic structure of IMC,
design of internal model controller (IMC) and conventional feedback controller. (5 Hrs.)
6. Digital control: Introduction to direct digital control (DDC), sampling continuous signals and
its reconstruction. (2 Hrs.)
Books Recommended:
1. Coughanowr, D. R. : Process Systems Analysis and Control, 2nd Edition,
McGraw-Hill International Editions, Singapore, 1991.
2. Stephanopoulos, G. : Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to Theory and
Practice, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi,
2003.
3.
Seborg, D. E.,
Edgar, T. F. &
Mellichamp, D. A.
: Process Dynamics and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore,
2nd Edition, 2004.
4. Luyben, W.L. &
Luyben M. L.
: Essentials of Process Control, McGraw Hill, International
Editions, Singapore, 1997.
2.5 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION
Introduction to mathematical modeling; Advantages and limitations of models and applications of
process models of stand-alone unit operations and unit processes; Classification of models – Simple
12
vs. rigorous. Lumped parameter vs. distributed parameter; Steady state vs. dynamic, Transport
phenomena based vs. Statistical, empirical vs analytical. Concept of degree of freedom analysis.
Review of numerical methods used for solution of; linear and non linear equations, ODE’s and
PDE.
Simple examples of process models; Models giving rise to nonlinear algebraic equation (NAE)
systems, - steady state models of flash vessels, equilibrium staged processes distillation columns,
absorbers, strippers, CSTR, heat exchangers, evaporators, etc.
Unsteady state lumped systems: models giving rise to differential algebraic equations (DAE) with
applications of laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Analysis of liquid level tank,
gravity flow tank, jacketed stirred tank heater, reactors, Flash separation column, multistage batch
and continuous distillation column, Absorption and Extraction columns.
Unsteady State Distributed Systems: Analysis of laminar flow in pipe, heat exchanger, packed
columns, plug flow reactor, packed bed reactor, absorption and extraction in packed beds.
Books Recommended:
TEXT BOOKS
1. Luyben, W.L. : Process Modeling Simulation and Control for
Chemical Engineers, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill Book
Co., 1990.
2. Franks, R.G.E. : Mathematical Modeling in Chemical Engineering,
John Wiley, 1967.
3. Ramirez, W. : Computational Methods in Process Simulatio, 2nd
Edition, Buttersworths, N.Y.
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Jana, A.K. : Chemical Process Modeling and Computer
Simulation, PHI, 2008.
2. Bequette, B.W. : Process Control: Modeling Design of Simulation,
PHI.
3. Denn, M. : Process Modeling, Wiley, N.Y., 1990.
2.5.1 PROCESS MODELLING AND SIMULATION (PRACTICALS)
Practicals based on theory covered in Paper 2.5.

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