Saturday, 3 March 2012

BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF ALGAE, BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS, M.SC. (BOTANY) ,SEMESTER I, SESSION 2011 – 2013


UNIT 103: BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF ALGAE, BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS

UNIT I

Comparative survey of important systems of classification of algae;
Criteria for algal classification and modern trends;
Diagnostic features of algal phyla, range of thallus and reproductive diversity; life history patterns, parallelism and evolution.

UNIT II

Comparative account of algal pigments ; light microscopic structure, ultra structure and function of Cell wall, flagella, chloroplast, pyrenoids and eyespots and their importance in taxonomy.
Study of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta up to the ordinal level with reference to the following genera: Anabaena, Gonium, Chlorella Enteromorpha, Bulbochaete, Closterium, Acetabularia, Nitella, Botrydium, Navicula, Cyclotella, Batrachospermum and Gracillaria.

UNIT III

General characteristics of the division: Diophyta, Chrysophyta and Cryptophyta.
Distribution of algae in soil, fresh water and marine environment, role of algae in soil fertility, productivity in fresh water and marine environment algae role in fisheries, algae in symbiotic association, algae in polluted habitats, algae as indicator of pollution, fossil algae, algae in biotechnology.

UNIT IV

Origin of Bryophytes: Primitive vs. advanced characters, derived features: evolutionary lines. Classification.
Comparative morphological, anatomical and cytological studies of gametophyte and sporophytes of Calobryales, Jungermanniales, Sphaerocarpales, Marchantiales, Takakiales, Sphagnales, Andreales and Bryales.

UNIT V

Experimental studies in Bryophytes
Spore germination, Protonemal differentiation, bud formation
Parthenogenesis, apogamy, apospory and regeneration.
Bryogeographycal regions of India with reference to central India.
Lichens: General account, structure and reproduction.

PRACTICAL 103:

1. Collection and study of algae mentioned in theory, identification up to generic level using algal monographs.
2. Preparation of synthetic medium and cultivation of algae, unialgal and axenic culture and their maintenance.
3. Collection, preservation of algal herbarium (10 specimens).
4. Preparation of pigments.
5. Staining techniques of cytology studies.
6. Study of electron microscopy of some algae.
7. Morphology and structural study of representative member of the following group using cleared whole amount preparation, dissection and section: Jungermanniales – Pellia and Porella (or any other leafy liverwort); Marchantiales-Plagiochasma, Dumortiera, Fimbriaria, (Astralla, Reboulia, Targionia, Conocephalum/ Weisnerella, Sphagnales/ Sphagnum/ Bryales
8. Experiments to study spore germination, formation of protonema and bud development.
9. Study of Bryophytes in their natural habitats

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