Saturday, 3 March 2012

IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY, SEMESTER II, MSc. BIOTECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM- 2009-2011


202. IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY

UNIT I

1. Immune response: Innate immune mechanisms and characteristics of adaptive immune
responses, Hematopoiesis.
2. Anatomical organization of Immune System: Primary Lymphoid Organs, Secondary
Lymphoid Organs, Ontogeny and Phylogeny of lymphocytes, Lymphocyte traffic.
3. Cell of immune system: Mononuclear cells and granulocyte, Antigen presenting cells,
lymphocytes and their subsets. Antigens, Heptanes: Factor affecting immunogenecity,
Super antigen.
4. Inflammation: its mediator and the process, cell-adhesion molecules and their role in
inflammation, lymphocyte homing, tissue injury and immune response leading to an
inflammatory reaction, role of anaphylatoxins, granulocyte in inflammatory process.

UNIT II

1. Major histocompatibility systems: Structure of MHC I and II molecules, polymorphism,
distribution variation and function. Organization of MHC complex in mouse and
humans. Association MHC with disease.
2. Recognition of antigens by T and B cells: Antigen processing, Role of MHC molecules
in Antigen presentation and co stimulatory signals.
3. T-Cell receptor complex, T- Cell accessory membrane molecules, activation of T –cells,
organization and arrangement of T-receptor genes.
4. B-cell receptor complex, activation of B-cells, Immunoglobulins: molecular structures,
types and function. Antigenic determinants on immunoglobulins.

UNIT III

1. Molecular mechanism of antibody diversity: Organization of genes coding for constant
and variable regions of heavy chain and light chain. Mechanism of antibody diversity,
Class Switching.
2. Antigen-Antibody interaction avidity and affinity measurement.
3. Monoclonal antibodies: production, characterization and application in diagnosis, therapy
and basic research.
4. Compliment System, components, Activation pathway and regulation of activation
pathway, complement deficiency, role of complement system in immune responses.

UNIT IV

1. Cytokines: Structure and functions, cytokine receptors, signal transductions mediated by
cytokine receptors, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cytokine related diseases
and therapeutic applications of cytokines.
2. Cytotoxic T-cell and their mechanism of action, NK cell and mechanism of target cell
destruction. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, delayed type
hypersensitivity. Techniques of Cell-mediated immunity.
3. Immunoregulation by Antigens, Antibodies, immune complexes, MHC and cytokines.
4. Hypersensitivity: definition, IgE mediated hypersensitivity, mechanism of mast cell
degranulation, mediators of type I reactions and consequences. Type II reactions, immune
complex mediated hypersensitivity and delayed type hypersensitivity.

UNIT V

1. Autoimmunity: Organ specific diseases, systemic disease, mechanism of autoimmunity.
2. Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Primary Immunodeficiencies and Secondary
Immunodeficiencies and their diagnosis and therapeutic approaches.
3. Vaccines: Active and passive immunization, whole organism vaccines, macromolecules
as vaccines, Recombinant vector Vaccines, DNA Vaccines, synthetic peptide Vaccines
and sub-unit Vaccines.
4. Immunodiagnostics: development of Immunodiagnostic Kits for infectious and noninfectious
disease with examples. Precipitation techniques, Agglutination, Fluorescence
Techniques, ELISA, RIA, Western Blotting and immuno-histochemical techniques.

Practical Exercises

1. Blood Film Preparation and identification of cells.
2. Lymphoid organs and their microscopic organization.
3. Immunization and production of polyclonal antibodies.
4. Double diffusion and Immuno-electrophoresis.
5. Radial immunodiffusion.
6. Purification of IgG from serum.
7. Separation of mononuclear cell by Ficoll-paque.
8. Con-A induced proliferation of thymocytes (by MTT Method).
9. Western blotting.
10. ELISA
11. Preparation o antibody-enzyme conjugates.

Reference Books:

1. Immunology, Kubey, R.A. Goldsby, Thomas J.Kindt, Barbara, A. Osbarne (Freeman).
2. Immunology- A short Course, Eli Benamini, Richard Coico, Geoffrey Sunshine.
3. Immunology by Tizzard
4. Fundamentals of Immunology, William Paul.
5. Immunology by Roitt and others.
6. Immunology by Abbas.

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