Sunday, 6 May 2012


Second Year Engineering
Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

1. Engineering Mathematics-III
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 3
Theory : 100
Tutorial : 1
Term Work : 25


Unit 1 Linear Differential Equations: Linear
Differential Equations with constant coefficients,
Homogenous Linear differential equations, method of
variation of parameters.

Unit 2 Applications of Linear Differential Equations:
Logistic law of population, Newton’s law of cooling and
chemical engineering problems. (Chemical reactions
and solutions)

Unit 3 Fourier series: Definition, Euler’s formulae,
Dirchlet’s Conditions for a Fourier expansion, Functions
having points of discontinuity, change of interval,
expansions of odd and even periodic functions, Half
range series.

Unit 4 Fourier transforms: Fourier transforms, Fourier
sine and cosine transforms, complex form of Fourier
integral, Finite Fourier sine and cosine transforms.


Unit 1 Laplace Transform: Definition, properties of
Laplace transforms, transforms of derivatives,
transforms of integral, Inverse Laplace transforms,
Convolution theorem. Applications of Laplace transform
to solve linear differential equations with constant

Unit 2 Vector Calculus: Differentiation of vectors,
Gradient of scalar point function, Directional derivative,
Divergence of vector point function, Curl of a vector
point function.

Unit 3 Vector Integration: The line integral, Surface
integral, volume integral, Gauss’s Divergence theorem,
Stoke’s theorem, Green’s theorem (Without proof).
Irrotational and solenoidal vector field.

Unit 4 Convergence of Series: Ratio test, integral
test, comparison test, Cauchy’s root test, Raabe’s test,
Logarithmic test. Absolute and uniform convergence
(Weirstrass’s M- test).

General Instructions:
1. For the term work of 25 marks, batchwise tutorials are
to be conducted. The number of students per batch
should be as per University pattern for practical
2. Minimum number of assignments should be 8 covering
all topics.

Nature of Question paper:
1. There will be two sections carrying 50 marks each.
2. There will be four questions in each section and three
questions should be attempted from each section.

Reference Books:

1. A text book of Applied Mathematics: Vol. I, II and III
by J. N. Wartikar & P. N. Wartikar , Vidyarthi Griha
Prakashan, Pune.
2. Higher Engineering Mathematics by Dr. B. S. Grewal.
3. Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig.

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

2. Microbiology
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practical : 4
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 50


Unit 1. Introduction to microorganisms 8
Contribution of various scientists in the development of
microbiology, Role of microorganisms in the causation of
disease and geochemical cycles.
Types and general characteristics of microorganisms: 1)
Bacteria- Archaebacteria, Actinomycetes, Rickettsia,
Mycoplasma, Chlamydia 2) Fungi – Molds and yeasts 3)
Algae 4) Protozoa 5) Viruses.

Unit 2. The classification of bacteria 6
Species: The unit of classification, New approaches to
bacterial taxonomy, Bacterial taxonomy the problems of
taxonomic arrangements, Bacterial phylogeny.

Unit 3. The principles of microbial nutrition and
microbial growth 10
The requirement for carbon nitrogen, sulfur and growth
factors, the role of oxygen in nutrition, nutritional categories
among microorganisms.
The definition of growth, the mathematical expression of
growth; the typical bacterial growth curve, arithmetic
growth, diauxic growth, synchronous growth, Batch and
continuous culture: chemostat and turbidostat.

Unit 4. Methods in Microbiology 6
The construction of culture media, various types of media;
Aseptic transfer techniques, Pure culture techniques- using
liquid media, semisolid and solid media preservation of pure
cultures, aerobic and anaerobic cultures, two-membered


Unit 1. Effect of the environmental factors on
microbial growth 5
Effects of solutes on growth and metabolism, Effect of
temperature on microbial growth, Effect of ion
concentration, Effect of oxygen, Effect of hydrostatic
pressure, Effect of heavy metal ions on microbial growth,
Effect of UV light on microbial growth.

Unit 2. The Control of Microorganisms 12
Fundamentals of control, the theory and practice of
Physical agents –1) Temperature- moist heat and dry heat,
incineration, boiling
2) Osmotic Pressure, 3) Radiations- ionizing and nonionizing,
4) Surface Tension and Interfacial Tension, 5)
Filtration.-types of bacterial filters, applications
Chemical agents – Selection of chemical agents for practical
application, Major groups of antimicrobial agents, Evaluation
of antimicrobial chemical agents. Gaseous sterilization;
Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents –
Chemotheraphy and Chemotherapeutic agents, Historical
highlights, Characteristics of antibiotics and their mode of
action, antifungal antibiotics, antitumor antibiotics, Synthetic
chemotherapeutic agents, Microbial susceptibility to
chemotherapeutic agents and Resistance to antibiotics.

Unit 3. Microbial genetics 6
Basic concept of Gene and its function.
Mutation – Basic concepts, Spontaneous and Induced
mutations, mutagens.
Genetic exchange and recombination: Bacterial conjugation,
Transduction, Transformation, Introduction to
extrachromosomal genetic material.

Unit 4. Microbial Pathogenesis 7
Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Bacterial, Fungal,
Protozoal, Viral Diseases; Bacterial invasion and
colonization, Bacterial toxins- types and mode of action,

Text Books:

1. Microbiology – Fundamentals and Application, 6th Ed. –
Purohit, S.S. (Agrobios)
2. General Microbiology, 7th Ed. – Schlegel H.G. (Cambridge
University Press)
3. General Microbiology, 5h Ed. – Stanier R.Y. et al.
(Macmilan press)
4. Microbiology, 5th Ed. – Pelczar, Jr. et al (Tata McGraw
5. Textbook of Microbiology, Anathnarayan and Panikar (
Orient Longman)
6. Textbook of Microbiology, P.Charkborthy

Reference Books:

1. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial infections
9th Ed. Vol 5 – Cox F.E.
G. et al. (Arnold Publisher Co.)
2. Talara K.P.’s Foundations in Microbiology, (McGraw Hill) )

List of Experiments:

1. Introduction to Laboratory Equipments
i) Incubator
ii) Autoclave
iii) Hot air oven
iv) Centrifuge
v) Colorimeter
vi) Seitz filter
vii) pH meter
viii) Colony Counter
ix) Water bath
2) Study and use of microscope.
3. Preparation of laboratory media: Autoclaving, plating and
streaking methods, preparation of slants and stabs.
4. Isolation and Identification of bacteria by streak plate
method and observation of viable cells, cultural
characteristics, morphological and biochemical
i) Study of Escherchia coli
ii) Study of Staphylococcus aureus
5) Bacterial Staining
a) Monochrome
b) Negative (skin and oral microflora)
c) Gram
d) Capsule
e) Inclusion bodies
6) Study of bacterial growth curve and diauxic growth curve.
7) Effect of environmental factors on microbial growth:
Temperature, pH, NaCl and Antibiotics.
8) Isolation of coliphages.
9) Mounting of molds
i) Aspergillus
ii) Mucor
iii) Penicillium

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

3. Cell Biology
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practical : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 25


Unit 1: Cell structure 12
a. Introduction to Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
b. Prokaryotic cell structure-
The bacterial nucleus, cell wall, capsules and slimes, Flagella
and motility, reserve materials and other cellular inclusions;
endospores and other persistent survival forms, pigments of
bacteria and fungi.
c. Eukaryotic cell structure –
The compartmentalization of higher cells, the cytosol, the
endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, lysosomes and
peroxisomes, organelles with double membranes – the
nucleus,mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Unit 2: The Cytoskeleton 6
a. General features of mictotubles & actin filaments as
dynamic assemblies
b. Microtubule organizing centers and microtubule
associated proteins
c. Actin filaments & actin- binding proteins in nonmuscle
d. Intermediate filaments, organization of the cytoskeleton
e. Cilia & Flagella-Structure and Function
f. Microfilaments-Assembly and Disassembly
g. Muscle contractility

Unit 3: Cell adhesion and extra cellular matrix 5
Intercellular recognition and cell adhesion, cell junctions, the
extracellular matrix.

Unit 4: Chemical signaling between cells 7
a. Molecular mechanism of signal transduction,
b. Ion gated channel:ligand gated ion chanel,
c. Neurotransmitters,
d. G-protein coupled receptor
e. Receptor enzymes.
f. Secondary messengers: cyclic AMP, calcium,


Unit 1: Cell Cycle 10
a. Component of cell cycle control system,
b. Intracellular control of cell cycle,
c. Extracellular control of cell cycle,
d. Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis

Unit 2: Cell Differentiation and the maintenance of
tissues 8
a. Maintenance of the differentiated state
b. Tissues with permanent cells,
c. Renewal by simple duplication
d. Renewal by stem cells- epidermis
e. Renewal by pluripotent stem cells- blood cell formation
f. Quiescent stem cells – skeletal muscle
g. Stem cell engineering

Unit 3: Cellular aging and senescence 5
a. Cellular changes during aging:morphological changes
b. Physiological changes
c. Subcellular changes
d. Aging of cells in culture
e. Aging and organ system.
f. Theories of aging: neuroendocrine theory, Immune
theory, somatic mutation theory, Glycation theory, error
and fidelity theory, non genetic theory.

Unit 4: Cancer 7
a. Types of tumors
b. Molecular basis of cancer.
c. Somatic mutation: proto-oncogene activation e.g. erb-B,
myc, ras,src,sis
d. Antioncogene inactivation e.g. Rb ,WT-1 p53,
e. Mechanism of proto-oncogene activation: point
mutation,Gene rearrengment,Gene amplification,
promoter insertion, enhancer insertion.
f. Viruses: oncogenic retroviruses, DNA oncogenic viruses,
chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation.
g. Characteristics of growing tumor cells: general and
morphological changes, biochemical changes, Metastasis,

Text Books:

1. Cell Biology – Roy S.C. and De Kalyan Kumar (New
Central Book Agency
2. Cell Biology – Fundamantal and Application, - Gupta M.L.
and Jangir M.L. (Agrobios)
3. Cell and Molecular biology, 8th Ed. – De Robertis E.D.P.
and De Robertis, Jr. E.M.F. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

Reference Books:

1. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd Ed. – Alberts B. et al
(Garland Publishing)
2. Molecular Cell Biology, 2nd Ed. – Lodish
3. Cell & Molecular Biology-Concepts & experiments, 3rd ed.-
Gerald Karp (John Wiley and sons. New York

List of Experiments:

1) Sterility of cell culture work environment
2) Isolation of cell organelles: nucleus, mitochondria,
3) Microtechnique
i) Fixation of various animal tissues
ii)Processing of the fixed tissues
4) Staining Nucleus by using basic dyes and Feulgen
5) Staining Mitochondria by Janus green B method (in bird,
insect, oral smear)
6) Staining Lysosomes by acid phosphatase in leucocytes
7) Staining Golgi apparatus -(Demo)
8) Staining Cell membrane
9) Study of cell membrane permeability
10) Cryo-preservation
a) Freezing
b) Thawing
11) Preparation of laboratory media (cell culture)
12) Media formulation and preparation (cell culture)
13) Harvesting of cells:
a) by scraping
b) by trypsinization
14) Preparation of
a. Meiosis in grasshopper testis/earthworm ovary
b. Mitosis in onion root tips/ tradentia flowers

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

4. Macromolecules and Biomembranes
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practicals : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 25


Unit 1. Amino acids and peptides 7
Structural features of amino acids; Classification of amino
acids; Physical properties- Ionisation of amino acid in
aqueous solutions, amino acids as ampholytes ; titration
curve and electric charge, differences in acid –base
properties, separation by electric charge; Peptidesbiologically
active peptides-bradikinin, oxytocin, thyrotropin,

Unit 2. Proteins 8
Classification of protein, covalent structure of proteins,
secondary structure-J helix, K-sheet, protein tertiary
structure, quarternary structure. Conformational analysis of
polypeptides and proteins. Ramachandran plot.Potential
energy calculations for psi, phi angles. Predication of
secondary structure- Chou-Fasman technique, Protein
folding-chaperones. Protein-protein and protein-ligand

Unit 3. Carbohydrates 8
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides,
proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycol-structure and function.
Commercially important carbohydrates-Cellulose, Xylan,
Starch Fructan, Mannan, Pectin, Agar, Chitin, Lignin.

Unit 4. Lipids and fats 7
Classification of lipids-simple and complex lipids, structure
and function of glycolipids, phospholipids, sphingolipids,
sphingomyelin, lipoproteins


Unit 1. Membrane structure and function 7
Functions, The chemical composition of membranes,
Membrane fluidity, Artificial membrane model- Liposome.

Unit 2. Membrane transport of small molecules 9
Aquaphorins, Ionophores, Ion selective channel voltage
gated e.g. Neuronal Na+ channel, Ligand gated channels
e.g. Acetylcholine receptor, Plasma membrane involved in
facilitated diffusion- glucose transporter, chloride
transporter, Active transport- Na+ - K+ dependent ATPase,
Ca+ dependent ATPase.

Unit 3. Membrane transport of macromolecules and
particles- exocytosis and endocytosis 10

 Exocytosis, Membrane fusion, Endocytosis, Coated pits
and vesicles provide a specialized pathway for recepted
mediated endocytosis of specific macromolecules, Many cell
surface receptors associate with coated pits only after
liagand binding, Some Macromolecules can penetrate cell
membrane directly, Specialized phagocytic cells ingest
particles that bind to specific receptors on their surface,
Phagocytosis is a localized response that proceeds by a
“membrane-zippering”, Membrane vesicular traffic – how it
is powered, guided and regulated?

Unit 4. Membrane Receptors 4
Structures and functions, methods to study membrane
receptors, purification and characterization of adrenergic and
cholinergic receptors.

Text books

1. Text book of Biotechnology by H. K. Das.
2. Biochemistry by Lubert Stryer (Freeman Int. Edition)
3. U.Satyanarayan’s Biochemistry 2nd Edition Uppala
4. “Principles of Biochemistry” by Albert Lehninger (CBS

Reference books

1. Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 54, 1st Edition by Gerald
Litwack (Academic Press Publication)
2. Molecular Cell Biology, 2nd Edition,-Lodish
3. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd Edition-Bruce Alberts.
Et. Al (Garland Publishing)

List of Experiments:

1. Preparation of standard solutions and buffers.
2. Verification of Beer-Lambart’s law;determination of Qmax
of KMno4
3. Determination of total soluble sugars by ferricyanide
4. Determination of reducing sugars by Nelson-Somogyi’s
5. Estimation of DNA by Diphenyl reaction
6. Determination of RNA by Orcinol Method
7. Estimation of proteins by Lowry’s method
8. Determination of glycogen in liver
9. Separation of amino acids using TLC/Paper
10. Separation of sugars using TLC/Paper chromatography
11. Reactions of monosaccharides : Molisch Test, Benedict
Test, Feling Test, Barfode Test
12. Reactions of disaccharide : Molisch Test, Benedict
Test, Feling Test, Barfode Test, Seliwinoff’s Test
13. Precipitation Reactions of Proteins : Precipitation by
mineral acids, by alcohol, Heat co-agulation Test by
ammonium sulphate, by heavy metals
14. Color reactions of proteins

1.Biuret Test
2 Ninhydrin Test
3. Xanthoproteic Test
4. Millon’s Test
5. Sakaguchi Test
6. Hoffkin-Cole Test
7. Sulphur / Lead acetate Test

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

5. Unit Operations – I
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 3
Theory : 100
Practicals : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical : 25


Unit 1. Fluid static’s & its applications 5
Hydrostatic equilibrium, Barometric equation, Hydrostatic
equilibrium in centrifugal field, applications- Manometer,
continuous gravity decanter, centrifugal decanter.

Unit 2. Liquid flow phenomenon 5
Classification of fluids, Rheological behavior of fluids &
fermentation broth, Newton’s Law of viscosity. Effect of
temperature & pressure on viscosity of fluids. Factors
affecting broth viscosity. Types of flow & introduction to
Reynolds No.

Unit 3. Basic equations of fluid flow 6
Continuity Equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Laminar flow in
pipes, Hagen paustulies equation, Turbulent flow in pipes,
friction factor chart.

Unit 4. Fluid pumping & Metering 7
Flow measuring devices –Venturimeter, Orifice meter, Pittot
tube, Rotameter, Classification of pumps - syringe pump,
peristaltic pump, centrifugal pumps, fans, Blowers&
Compressors, Types of valves.


Unit 1. Properties & Handling of solids 4
Characterization of solid particles Particle shape, Particle
size & its analysis, mixing of solids-Ribbon mixer, pony
mixer, beater mixer, kneaders & disperser blades.

Unit 2. Grinding & Mixing 4
Ball mill, fluid energy mill, Agitated mills & colloid mill,
pulveriser, Agitated vessel & types of impellers, flow
patterns, power required for agitation.

Unit3. Units and dimensions 6
Measurement conventions, density, specific gravity, specific
volume, mole, chemical composition, temperature, pressure,
standard conditions and ideal gases, ideal gas law, physical
& chemical property data, Stoichiometry with suitable
biochemical example.

Unit 4. Fundamental of material balance 8
Law of conservation of mass, types of material balance,
procedure for material balance, calculation with suitable
biochemical examples, material balance with recycle, bypass
and purge system, Stoichiometry of growth and product
formation, growth Stoichiometry & elemental balances,
Electron balances, biomass yield, product Stoichiometry,
Theoretical oxygen demand, maximum possible yield.

Text Books:

1) Unit operations of chemical Engineering – W.L. McCabe
and J.M.Smith.
2) Bioprocess Engineering principles – Pauline M.Doran.

Reference Books-

1) Transport processes and separation process principles –
Christic John Geankoplis.
2) Stoichiometry – By Hougen and Watson.
3) Chemical Engg Volume I – Richardson and coulson.

List of Experiments:

Experiments on following topics are to be conducted:-
1. Friction losses through pipes.
2. Venturimeter.
3. Orifice meter.
4. Bernoulli’s experiment.
5. Ribbon blender.
6. Sieve analysis.
7. Ball mill.
8. Sedimentation.
9. Measurement of density for different liquid & solids,
specific volume.
10. Assignment on material balance of any process.
11. Plate & Frame filter press.
12. Leaf filter.
Note: Any eight (8) experiments are to be conducted.

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

6. Microbial Identification studies
Practical hours/week: 2
Term work: 25 marks

Students will be provided with unknown microbial culture.
The student shall identify and characterize the given culture
based on morphological, cultural and biochemical
characteristics (using Bergey’s Manual series) and submit
report to the department on the work carried out throughout
the semester. The term work marks shall be based on
1) The performance of the student
2) Report on work done
3) Questions and answers during report submission

The faculty member/members shall guide the students in:

1) Information retrieval (literature survey)
a. Source of information i.e. names of the books,
journals, reports books etc.
b. Searching for the information i.e. referring to
manuals etc.
2) Preparation of the protocol and work plan
3) Preparation of the report as per the guidelines of
4) The theoretical aspects of 16S rRNA technique and DNADNA
hybridization technique and its application in microbial

Second Year Engineering: Semester-III

7. Soft skills-I
Tutorial hours/week: 1
Term work: 25 marks

Personal Competences

Soft skills
Definition & importance, general types of soft skill (social,
Psychological, Communication)
Personal Qualities
Introduction, components of personality, multitask
handling, Administrative and technocratic qualities,
introduction to personal evaluation and appraisal
Thinking skill
Importance of thinking, types of thinking,
Intelligence and emotional quotient
Leadership skills
Definition, types of leaderships, leadership styles
Time management
Importance & significance of time, utilization,
Business etiquettes
Introduction, importance, different types of etiquettes,
manners, protocols, corporate culture
Stress management
Definition, types of stress, stress management,
Term work marks shall be based on-
Personality tests
IQ and EQ tests
Leadership essays
Time schedules of different organizations
Diversified culture

Reference Books

Organizational Behavior by Don Hellriegel, Jhon W. Slocum,
Richard W. Woodman

Second Year Engineering

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

1. Biostatistics
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 3
Theory : 100
Tutorial : 1
Term Work : 25


Unit 1 Descriptive Statistics: 4
1.1 Presentation of Data : Frequency Distribution,
Graphical presentation
of data.
1.2 Measures of Location: Mean, Median, Mode and
simple properties (Without derivation)
1.3 Measures of Dispersion: Range, Variance,
Standard Deviation (S.D)
Coefficient of Variation.

Unit 2 Probability: 5
2.1 Statistical Probability with simple problems.
2.2 Conditional probability.
2.3 Baye’s Theorem.

Unit 3 Probability Distribution 4
a. Discrete Distributions – Binomial, Poisson
distribution and properties.
b. Continuous Distributions – Normal distribution and

Unit 4: Test of Significance: 8
4.1 Sampling distribution of mean and standard error
4.2 Large sample tests (test for an assumed mean and
equality of two
population means)
4.3 small sample tests (t-test for an assumed mean
and equality of means
of two populations), Paired t-test.
4.4 Confidence Interval for means.

Unit 1: Correlation and Regression: 6
1.1 Bivariate data – simple correlation and regression
coefficients and
their relation.
1.2 Linear regression and equations of line of
1.3 Curve Fitting.
1.4 Logistic Regression.

Unit 2: Test using Chi-square Distribution: 5
2.1 Inference about population variance.
2.2 Goodness of fit test.
2.3 Test for independence of attributes Yates’s
2.4 Confidence Interval for variances.

Unit 3: Experimental Design: 6
3.1 Principles of experimental designs, completely
randomized design.
3.2 Randomized block design and precision of results.
3.3 Simple factorial experiments of 22, 23.
3.4 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and its uses in the

Unit 4: Sampling and Research Methodology:
4 4.1 Sampling Techniques –Simple random sampling,
Systematic, Stratified
Multistage, Cluster sampling (Theoretical)
4.2 Designing and Methodology of an Experiment.

General Instructions:

1. For the term work of 25 marks, batch wise tutorials
are to be conducted. The number of students per batch
should be as per University pattern for practical
2. Minimum number of assignments should be 8 covering
all topics.
3. Use Statistical software to solve the real life and
engineering problems.
Nature of Question paper:
1. There will be two sections carrying 50 marks each.
2. There will be four questions in each section and three
question should be attempted from each section.

Reference Books:

1. Statistics and Experimental Design – An Introduction
for Biologists and
Biochemists – Geoffrey Clark
2. Gupta S.C. Fundamentals of Statistics. Himalaya
Publishing House, New
3. Daniel W.W, Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis
in the Health.
4. Introduction to Biostatistics and Research
Methodology – Rao & Richard.
5. Mathematical Models in Biology – Allman & Rhodes.

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

2. Unit Operation – II
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practical : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 25


Unit 1. Mechanism of heat transfer. Basic law of conduction,
steady-state conduction combine resistances, combine
conduction and convention. Heat flow through cylinder.  7

Unit 2. Convection heat transfer, dimensional analysis,
forced and natural convection, convention in flow over
surfaces through pipes. Boiling and condensation. 7

Unit 3. Heat exchangers 10
Types of heat exchanging Equipments, Double- pipe heat
exchanger. Countercurrent and parallel flows heat flux and
overall and individual heat transfer coefficients. LMTD,
fouling factor and typical overall heat transfer coefficient,
extended surfaces.

Unit 4. Evaporation 6
Design of evaporators, overall heat transfer coefficients,
calculation for single and multiple effects.


Unit 1. Molecular diffusion 7
Diffusion theory, role of diffusion in Bioprocessing, film
theory, oxygen uptake in cell culture, factors affecting
cellular oxygen demand oxygen transfer from gas bubble to

Unit 2. Distillation 9
Raoult’s law, Ideal solutions types of distillation vapour liquid
equilibria. McCabe Thiele method. Azeotrophic distillation,
Total reflux, minimum and optimum, extractive distillation,
reflux ratio, molecular distillation, vacuum distillation.

Unit 3. Drying 9
Classification of dryers, principles of drying, calculation of
heat duty, rate of drying, Critical moisture content,
calculation of drying time, drying equipments, freeze dryer,
tray dryer, rotary dryer, fluidized bed dryer, spray dryer,
drum dryer, flash dryer.

Unit 4. Extraction 5
Introduction to liquid-liquid extraction, Application of
extraction to biological system, batch operation.

Text books:

1) Unit operations of Chemical Engg.-W. L. McCabe and J.
M. Smith.
2) Bioprocess Engg. Principles- Pauline M.Doran.

Reference books:

1) Transport processes and separation processes
principles- Christic John Geankoplis
2) Stoichiometry by Hougen and Watson.
3) Chemical Engg. Vol. 2. By Richardson & Coulson.

List of Experiments:

Experiments on following topics are to be conducted:-
1. Heat transfer in metal rod.
2. Heat transfer through insulating powder.
3. Double pipe heat exchanger.
4. Shell & tube heat exchanger.
5. Forced convection.
6. Natural convection.
7. Lagged pipe.
8. Simple distillation.
9. Vacuum distillation.
10. Vacuum dryer.
11. Rotary Dryer.
12. Extraction of solute.
Note: Any eight (8) experiments are to be conducted.

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

3. Enzyme Technology
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practical : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 25


Unit 1. Enzymes 9
Classification, nomenclature, International units and types of
enzymes, General characters of enzymes: characters such
as specificity, catalysis and regulation and localization of
enzymes in the cell, Structure of enzymes: Primary,
secondary and tertiary structure of enzyme.

Unit 2. Enzyme Kinetics 7

Introduction to kinetics: activation energy, transition state
theory and energy, consideration, Kinetics of single
substrate enzyme catalysed reaction- Michaelis- Menten
equation, Significance of Km and Vmax, Modifications of
Michaeli’s –Menten plot.

Unit 3. Enzyme inhibition and its kinetics 5
Types of inhibition- Reversible and
irreversible inhibition, Kinetics of inhibition.

Unit 4. Enzyme Catalysis 9
Catalytic efficiency- proximity and orientation effects,
distortion or strain, Different mechanisms of enzyme
catalysis, acidbase and covalent catalysis and metal-ion
catalysis, Molecular mechanism of action of chymotrypsin,
Lysozyme, Chemical modification of enzymes


Unit 1. Allosteric and regulatory enzyme 7
Binding of ligands to Protein, Co-operativity models- MWC
and KNF model, Regulations by allosteric enzymes, Other
mechanisms of enzyme regulation-enzyme induction and
repression and covalent modification.

Unit 2. Immobilized enzymes 6
Methods of immobilization - ionic bonding, adsorption,
covalent, bonding (based on R groups of amino acids),
microencapsulation and gel entrapment, Properties of
immobilized enzymes, Applications of immobilized enzymes.

Unit 3. Production of enzymes 10
Sources of enzymes-animal plant and microbial sources,
Large scale production of enzymes- basic methodology of
production, extraction and purification of enzymes, Enzyme
production and recombinant DNA technology.

Unit 4. Biotechnological applications of enzymes 7
Applications of enzymes in food, sugar, leather, detergent
industries etc., Uses of enzymes in drug, medicine,
industries, Uses of enzymes to make amino acids and
peptides, Legislative and safety aspects.

Text Books:

A text book of Biochemistry,-A.V.S.S. Rama Rao 9th ed (UBS
Publisher’s and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.)
Leninger: Principles of Biochemistry, 3rd Ed.-Nelson D. et al
(Worth Publishers)
Basic Biotechnology, 2nd Ed.-Ratledge, C and Kristiansen B.
Reference Books:

Fundamentals of Enzymology Price and Stevens
Enzymes Dixon and Webb
Isoenzymes By D. W. Moss
Immobilized Biocatalysts W. Hartneir
Selected papers Allosteric Regulation M. Tokushige
Biochemistry, 5th, Ed.Berg,J.M. Tymoczko J.L. and Stryer L.
(W.H. Freman & Co.)
Molecular biology of the Cell,2nd Ed.- Alberts B. et al
(Garland Publishing)
Molecula cell biology, 2nd Ed.- Lodish et al.

List of Experiments:

1. Isolation of amylase, protease and cellulase producing
2. Qualitative detection of enzymesa)
b) Cellulase
c) Urease
d) Catalase
e) Invertase
3. Assay of enzyme (Amylase/ Invertase)
4. Effect of variables on enzyme activity- amylase/invertase
a. Substrate concentration
b. Temperature
c. pH
5. Effect of inducers and inhibitors on amylase/ invertase
6. Study of Immobilization by whole cell entrapment method

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

4. Metabolic Pathways and Their Regulation
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 3
Theory : 100
Practical : 2
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 25


Unit 1. Metabolism of carbohydrates 8
Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Glycolysis, TCA cycle,
HMPshunt pathway, Pentose phosphate pathway,
Gluconeogenesis, Fermentation.

Unit 2. Metabolism of lipids 5
J, K, R oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid,
propionate pathway, Biosynthesis of Lipids and cholesterol

Unit 3. Metabolism of Proteins 5
Transamination of amino acids, Deamination of amino acids,
urea cycle. Biosynthesis of amino acids, Biosynthesis of

Unit 4. Metabolism of nucleic acids 5
Biosynthesis of purines and pyraimidines, catabolism of
purines and pyramidines


Unit 1. Biological oxidation 7
Enzymes of biological oxidation, High energy compounds –
ATP, ADP. Electron transport chain, oxidative
phosphorylation, pigments involved in photosysnthesis

Unit 2. Electron transport under anaerobic condition: 7

Nitrate respiration-denitrification and nitrate amonification,
Denitrification, Reduction of sulphur to hydrogen sulphide,
the formation of methane by reduction of carbonate, the
formation of acetate by reduction of carbonate, the
formation of succinate by reduction of fumerate,reduction of
iron ( III ) to iron (II ) ions.

Unit 3. Inorganic hydrogen donors 4
Aerobic chemolithotropic bacteria, Ammonium and nitrite
oxidation, nitrification, oxidation of reduced sulphur
compounds, oxidation of iron (III ), oxidation of molecular
hydrogen, carbondioxide fixation.

Unit 4. Stoichiometric and kinetics of microbial growth
from a thermodynamic perspective
Nomenclature, Introduction, Stoichiometric calculations,
Stoichiometric prediction based on Gibbs Energy dissipation,
growth kinetics from a thermodynamic point of view

Text books

1. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial
infections 9th Edn vol 5 –Cox F.E.G. et al (Arnold
publication )
2 .U. Satyanarayana’s Biochemistry 2nd Edn (Uppala
3 . General Microbiology 7th Edn. Schlegel H.G (Cambridge
University Press )

Reference books

1. Molecular Biology of the Cell , 2nd Edn.- Albert Bruce
(garland Publication )
2. Molecular Cell Biology, 2nd Edn Lodish et al
3. Biochemistry by Stryer

List of Experiments:

1. Estimation of serum creatinine by Jaffe’s Method.
2. Estimation of serum Albumin by Bromocresol dye method.
3. Estimation of serum Bilirubin-Direct and Indirect by
Malloy and Evelyn method.
4. Estimation of serum Triglcerides.
5. Estimation of serum SGOT.
6. Estimation of serum SGPT.
7. Estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase.
8. Estimation of serum cholesterol.
9. Column chromatographic separation of proteins by Gel
10. Separation of proteins by polyacrylamide gel

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

5. Molecular Biology
Teaching Scheme: Hrs
Examination Scheme: Marks
Lectures : 4
Theory : 100
Practical : 4
Term Work : 25
Practical/oral : 50


Unit 1. Genetic material 4
a) Evidences for nucleic acids as genetic material
b) Watson and Crick’s model of DNA structure
c) Alternative forms of DNA.

Unit 2. Organization of genetic material 14
a) Viruses: Nature of genetic material, unfolding and packing
of viral genetic material.
b) Bacteria: Folded fibre model in E. coli.
c) Eucaryotes: Nucleus, nucleosomes, Euchromatin and
heterochromatin, histones and non histone proteins, Giant
chromosomes, satellite DNA. Structure of class I, class II
and class III genes.
d) Split genes and overlapping genes.

Unit 3. Duplication of chromosome and DNA 9
a) DNA replication in E. coli- rules and enzymes involved
theta and rolling circle model.
b) Nucleic acid replications in viruses: basic model- rolling
circle, theta and linear DNA replication.
c) Organelle DNA replication – chloroplasts and
d) Chromosome duplication – Taylor’s experiment, Dupra’s
folded fibre and alternative folded fibre models of metaphase
e) RNA replication.

Unit 4. Plasmids 3
Nomenclature and classification; general properties and
types; detection and purification; replication and transfer


Unit 1. Molecular aspects of gene regulation and expression 15
a) Evolution of one cistron one polypeptide theory.
b) Genetic code-Deciphering of genetic code, Dictionary and
important properties of genetic code.
c) Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, RNA
processing, structures of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA, antisense
RNA and its significance, post-transcriptional processes,
Novel structural motifs in transcription factors in eukaryotes.
d) Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, operon
models-lactose, tryptophan and arabinose, Post-translational
modifications, fate of newly synthesized proteins.
e) Environmental factors in gene expression.
f) Inhibitors of transcription and translation.
g) Regulation of gene expression.
h) Global influences on gene expression.

Unit 2. DNA damage and repair 5
Types of damages, damaging agents, repair mechanisms -
photoreactivation, dark repair, postreplicational
recombination repair, SOS repair.

Unit 3. DNA recombination 4
Homologous recombination, Site-specific recombination,
Consequences of recombination event.

Unit 4. Mobile elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 6
Discovery, Characteristics of transposable elements, Types:
insertion sequences, transposons, Retrosposons, Maize
transposons, Ty elements of yeast, Transposition- replicative
and non-replicative, formation of target site duplications.

Text books:
1. Genes VII – Benjamin Lewin
2. Molecular Biology – Freifelder
3. Molecular Biology and biotechnology, 4th ed by Walker
J.M. and Rapley R.
4. Molecular Biology of the genes – Watson J.D.
5. Principles of Genetics - Gardner E.J. Simmons M.J. and
Slustad D.P.
6. Genetics – Monroe W. and Strickberger

Reference books:
The Cell - Bruce Alberts et al
Molecular Biology of cell – Lodish et al
Genes and Genomes – Singer M and Berg P.

List of Experiments:
1. Demonstration of bacterial and yeast DNA.
2. Spooling of chromosomal DNA from onion cells.
3. Isolation of DNA from bacteria and yeasts.
4. Isolation of RNA from yeasts.
5. Isolation of bacterial plasmid.
6. Isolation of yeast plasmid.
7. Principles and practice of agarose gel electrophoresis.
8. Quantitation of DNA.
9. Isolation of restriction endonucleases from bacteria.
10. Testing of chemicals for mutagenecity using Ame’s
11. Determination of melting temperature (Tm) and
base composition of DNA from thermal denaturation
12. Isolation of plant mitochondrial DNA.
13. In vitro transcription.
14. Purification of plasmid.
15. Tunel technique- DNA repair.
16. Bacterial conjugation.

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

6. Basic computer language skills
Practical hours/week: 2
Term work: 25 marks

1. MS-Window Operating System
a. Introduction
b. System Requirements
c. Installation (Microsoft XP and Microsoft Server2000)
d. Security Features, Administrator Privileges
e. Authentication, User account creation

2. Unix Operating System
a. Introduction to Unix
b. Installation of RedHat Linux, or Fedora Core or Ubuntu
c. Terminal Commands, VI-Editor
d. Shell Commands and Scripts
e. Open Office

3. C, C++, Oracle, Visual basic, dotnet

4. Internet and Web Browsing
a. Internet Explore, Mozilla Fire Fox
b. Biological Search Engines- SRS, Entrez
c. Protein Data Bank and Structural analysis
d. Visualization tools- RasMol, SwissPDB, Cn3D
e. Literature Databases- PubMed, Medline, Scirus, Nature

Second Year Engineering: Semester-IV

7. Soft skills-II
Tutorial hours/week: 1
Term work: 25 marks

Corporate Culture and Team Work
Communication skills-
Oral/spoken, written communication skills, effective
presentation skill
Interpersonal skills-
Definition, significance, different types of interpersonal skills
Teamwork/collaboration skills –
Basic types of team, team effectiveness factors
Problem-solving skills –
Introduction, Different steps in problem solving, barriers in
problem solving,
Decision making,
Work ethic -
Definition of profession, Importance of values, types of
management’s ethics, work attitude
Conflict management-
Definition, varieties of conflicts, negotiation
Self evaluation and appraisal
Importance and significance, parameters of evaluation and
Term work marks shall be based on-
Technical Presentation
Team work- case study
Corporate meeting
Case study of corporate problem
Self evaluation

Reference Books
Organizational Behavior by Don Hellriegel, Jhon W. Slocum,
Richard W. Woodman

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