Sunday, 13 May 2012

Shivaji University, Kolhapur Second year undergraduate compulsory course in ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES


1. Nature of Environmental Studies. (4 lectures)

Definition, scope and importance.
Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
Need for public awareness.

2. Natural Resources and Associated Problems. (4 lectures)

a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, dams
and their effects on forests and tribal people.

b) Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground
water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams benefits and

c) Mineral resources: Usage and exploitation. Environmental effects of
extracting and using mineral resources.

d) Food resources: World food problem, changes caused by
agriculture effect of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide

e) Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and nonrenewable
energy resources, use of alternate energy sources.
Solar energy, Biomass energy, Nuclear energy.

f) Land resources: Solar energy , Biomass energy, Nuclear energy,
Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil
erosion and desertification.
Role of an individuals in conservation of natural resources.

3. Ecosystems (6 lectures)

Concept of an ecosystem.
Structure and function of an ecosystem.
Producers, consumers and decomposers.
Energy flow in the ecosystem.
Ecological succession.
Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.
Introduction, types, characteristics features, structure and function of the
following ecosystem :-
a) Forest ecosystem, b) Grassland ecosystem, c) Desert ecosystem,
d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries).

4. Biodiversity and its conservation (6 lectures)

Introduction- Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.
Bio-geographical classification of India.
Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical,
aesthetic and option values.
India as a mega- diversity nation.
Western Ghat as a biodiversity region.
Hot-spot of biodiversity.
Threats to biodiversity habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man- wildlife
Endangered and endemic species of India.
Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of

5 Environmental Pollution (6 lectures).

Definition: Causes, effects and control measures of: Air pollution,
Water pollution, soil pollution, Marine pollution, Noise pollution, Thermal
pollution, Nuclear hazards.
Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and
industrial wastes. Role of a individual in prevention of pollution.

6. Social Issues and the Environment (8 lectures)

Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami and landslides.
Urban problems related to energy
Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns.
Environmental ethics: Issue and possible solutions.
Global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and
Wasteland reclamation.
Consumerism and waste products.

7. Environmental Protection (8 lectures)

From Unsustainable to Sustainable development.
Environmental Protection Act.
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act.
Wildlife Protection Act.
Forest Conservation Act.
Population Growth and Human Health, Human Rights.

8. Field Work (10 lectures)

Visit to a local area to document environmental assets-
Visit to a local polluted site - Urban / Rural / Industrial /Agricultural.
Study of common plants, insects, birds.
Study of simple ecosystems - ponds, river, hill slopes, etc.

References :
1) Agarwal, K.C.2001, Environmental Biology, Nidi Pub. Ltd., Bikaner.
2) Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd.,
Ahmedabad 380013, India, (R)
3) Brunner R.C.,1989, Hazardous Waste Incineration, McGraw Hill Inc.
4) Clank R.S. Marine Pollution, Clanderson Press Oxford (TB)
5) Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H.Gorhani, E. & Hepworth, M.T.2001,
Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Pub. Mumbai, 1196p
6) De A.K., Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Wastern Ltd.
7) Down to Earth , Centre for Science and Environment , New Delhi.(R)
8) Gleick, H.,1993, Water in crisis, Pacific Institute for studies in Dev.,
Environment & Security. Stockholm Env. Institute. Oxford Univ. Press
9) Hawkins R.E., Encyclopedia of Indian Natural History, Bombay Natural
History Society, Bombay (R)
10) Heywood, V.H.& Watson, R.T.1995, Global Biodiversity Assessment,
Cmbridge Univ. Press 1140p.
11) Jadhav, H.and Bhosale, V.M.1995, Environmental Protection and Laws,
Himalaya Pub. House, Delhi 284p.
12) Mickinney, M.L.and School. R.M.1196, Environmental Science
Systems and Solutions, Web enhanced edition, 639p.
13) Miller T.G. Jr., Environmental Science. Wadsworth Publications Co.
14) Odum, E.P.1971, Fundamentals of Ecology, W.B.Saunders Co. USA,
15) Rao M.N.and Datta, A.K.1987, Waste Water Treatment, Oxford & IBH
Publ. Co. Pvt. Ltd., 345p
16) Sharma B.K., 2001, Environmental Chemistry, Gokel Publ. Hkouse,
17) Survey of the Environment, The Hindu (M)
18) Townsend C., Harper, J. and Michael Begon, Essentials of Ecology,
Blackwell Science (TB)
19) Trivedi R.K. Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines,
Compliances and Standards, vol. I and II, Environmental Media (R)
20) Trivedi R.K. and P.K. Goel, Introduction to air pollution, Techno-
Publications (TB)
21) Wagner K.D.,1998, Environmental management, W.B. Saunders Co.
Philadelphia, USA 499p.
22) Paryavaran shastra – Gholap T.N.
23) Paryavaran Sahastra – Gharapure

(M) Magazine
(R) Reference
(TB) Textbook

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