## Wednesday, 30 May 2012

## SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY, KOLHAPUR B.E.(Electrical) SEM. VII

Revised
Syllabus of

**( B.E. Electrical Engineering Sem –VII & VIII )**

To
be introduced from the academic year 2010-11

(i.e.
from June 2010 ) Onwards

**(Subject to the modifications will be made from time to time)**

ELECTIVES
(SEMISTER I):

1.
FACTS

2.
Digital Control System

3.
Embedded System

4.
Electrical Engineering Materials

5.
Thermal Engineering

ELECTIVES
(SEMISTER II):

1.
EHVAC

2.
Computer Aided power Systems

3.
Advanced Digital Signal Processing

4.
Restructured Power Systems

**[Note :- Examination scheme and term work marks strictly as per above structure]**

**1. ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND CONTROL**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures
: 4 Hours/week Papers :100 marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week TW: 25 Marks

POE:25
Marks

1.INTRODUCTION
TO ELECTRICAL DRIVES: Types of the electrical drives, parts of

electrical
drives, criteria for selections, choice of electrical drives, selection of
motor rating

determinations
for various types of duty ratio. Selection of converter rating.

2.
DYNAMICS OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES: Fundamental torque equation, speed torque,

connection
and multi-quadrant operation classification of load torques. Steady state
stability

of
drives

3.CONTROL
OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES: Modes of the operation, speed control and drive

classification,
close loop control of drives.

4.
D.C. MOTOR DRIVES: Method of the D.C. motor control, starting braking and speed

control,
single phase and three phase full controlled and half controlled converter fed
D.C.

drives.
Multi-quadrant operation of separately excited D.C. shunt motor, Dual converter
fed

D.C.
drives, converter control of D.C. series motor, Chopper controlled d.c. shunt
motor

drives,
Single quadrant and multi-quadrant operation of D.C. shunt motor and Chopper,

Chopper
control of series motor, performance and stability of variable speed D.C.
drives

Regenerative
breaking the D.C. series motor.

5.
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES: Braking and speed control method for 3 phase Induction

Motor,
power for stator voltage control (A.C. regulator),VSI fed induction motor drive
,

Power
circuit circle loop control block diagram, power circuit and close loop control
loop of

CSI
and fed Induction motor drives ,comparison of fed induction motor and drive,
Analysis

of
the inverter fed induction motor using Harmonics equivalent circuit, Harmonics
torque

and
losses with inverter fed Induction motor drives, Dynamics dq model, Axes

transformation,
Stationary frame a-b-c to ds-ds axes transformation, stationary frame

*d**s*−*d**s*
to
synchronously rotating

*d**e*−*d**e*transformations. Synchronously rotating reference frame-
Dynamic
Model (Kron Equation) Stationary frame Dynamic model (Stanley

equation).Vector
or field oriented controlled Drive Analogy, Principles of vector control,

Direct
or feedback vector control.

6.
SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE: Chopper controlled resistance in rotor

circuit,
slip power recovery using Cascade converter, Static Sherbius drive.

7.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AND BRUSHLESS D.C. MOTOR DRIVES: VSI fed

synchronous
motor drives, Variable frequency control of multiple Synchronous motor drives,

Brush
less D.C. Motor drives.

**TERM WORK:**

Minimum
10 experiments to be performed from the list given below:

1)
Study of torque-speed characteristics of separately excited DC motor from
single phase

full
converter.

2)
Study of torque-speed characteristics of armature voltage controlled of
separately excited

DC
motor from single phase full converter

3)
Study of torque-speed characteristics of separately excited DC motor from three
phase

full
converter

4)
Study of torque-speed characteristics of DC series motor using chopper.

5)
Three phase induction motor speed control using slip power recovery scheme.

6)

*fV*Control of induction motor.
7)
open loop speed control of separately excited DC motor using chopper at high
frequency.

8)
Three phase induction motor speed control using rotor resistance control

9)
Simulation of chopper fed DC drive using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

10)
Simulation of variable frequency induction motor drive using MATLAB/SIMULINK

11)
Simulation of three phase converter fed separately excited DC motor control
using

MATLAB/SIMULINK.

12)
Simulation of t single phase converter fed separately excited DC motor control
using

MATLAB/SIMULINK.

**Texts and references :**

1)
Fundamentals of the electrical drives: Gopal K Dubey, Narosa publication

2)
Power Electronics converter application : N. Mohan T.M. Undeland &
W.P.Robbins, John

Wiley
& sons Inc.

3)
Electrical Drives Concept and application: Vedam Subrahnyam

4)
Advanced power Electronics and A.C. Drives: B.K. Bose

5)
Analysis of thyristor power conditioned motors: S.K.Pillai

**2. HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
3 Hours /week Paper: 100 Marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week T.W.: 50 Marks

1.INTRODUCTION
TO HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS:

Electric
Field Stresses, Gas or Vacuum as Insulator, Liquid Dielectrics, Solids and

Composites,
Estimation and Control of Electric Stress, Numerical methods for electric field

computation,
Surge voltages, their distribution and control, Applications of insulating

materials
in transformers, rotating machines, circuit breakers, cable power capacitors
and

bushings.

2.BREAK
DOWN IN GASEOUS AND LIQUID DIELECTRICS: Gases as insulating

media,
collision process, Ionization process, Townsend’s criteria of breakdown in
gases,

Paschen’s
law. Liquid as Insulator, pure and commercial liquids, breakdown in pure and

commercial
liquids.

3.BREAK
DOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS: Intrinsic breakdown, electromechanical

breakdown,
thermal breakdown, breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice, Breakdown in

composite
dielectrics, solid dielectrics used in practice.

4.GENERATION
OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS: Generation of High DC

Voltages,
Generation of High AC voltages, Generation of Impulse Voltages, Generation of

Impulse
currents, Tripping and control of impulse generators.

5.MEASUREMENT
OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS: Measurement of High

direct
Current voltages, Measurement of High Voltages alternating and impulse,

measurement
of High Currents-direct, alternating and Impulse, Oscilloscope for impulse

voltage
and current measurements.

6.OVER
VOLTAGE PHENOMENON AND INSULATION CO-ORDINATION: Natural

causes
for over voltages, Lightning phenomenon, Overvoltage due to switching surges,

system
faults and other abnormal conditions, Principles of Insulation Coordination on
High

voltage
and Extra High Voltage power systems.

7.NON-DESTRUCTIVE
HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL:

Measurement
of D.C Resistively, Measurement of Dielectric Constant and loss factor, Partial

discharge
measurements.

8.HIGH
VOLTAGE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS: Testing of Insulators and

bushings,
Testing of Isolators and circuit breakers, Testing of cables, Transformers and
Surge

Arresters,
Radio Interference measurements.

**TERM WORK:**

List
of Experiments:

1.
Partial Discharge Measurements of Transformer windings and Cables

2.
Impulse Tests on Transformers

3.
Capacitance Measurement of Cables

4.
Condition Monitoring Of Transformers

5.
Transformer oil Testing

6. Measurement
of Dielectric properties with Schering Bridge

**Texts and references :**

1.
High Voltage Engineering: M.S.Naidu and V. Kamaraju, TMH Publications, 3rd Edition

2.
High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals: E.Kuffel, W.S.Zaengl, J.Kuffel ,
Elsevier

3.
High Voltage Engineering: C.L.Wadhwa, New Age Internationals (P) Limited, 1997.

4.
High Voltage Insulation Engineering by Ravindra Arora, Wolfgang Mosch, New Age

International
(P) Limited, 1995.

**3. ADVANCED SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:4
Hours /week Paper: 100 Marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week T.W.: 25 Marks

POE:
25 Marks

1.Circuit
Breakers: a)Voltage -current characteristics of arc, Principles of DC and AC
arc

interruption,
high resistance and current zero interruption, arc voltage, Transient
Restriking

Voltage
(TRV), Recovery voltage, RRRV, current chopping, resistance switching,

capacitive
current interruption.

b)
Classification of circuit breakers, brief study of construction and working of
bulk oil and

minimum
oil CB, Air break and Air Blast CB, SF6 and Vacuum CB, HVDC breakers, ratings

of
CB and testing of CB

c)
Fuse: Rewirable and HRC fuse, fuse characteristics, application and selection
of fuse.

2.
Relays: Selectivity, sensitivity, reliability and speed of operation of a
relay, CT burden

calculation,
attracted armature, balanced beam, moving coil relays, theory and construction

of
induction disc and induction cup relays, numerical relays, microprocessor based
relaying.

3.Over
current Protection : Plug setting, time setting, radial feeder and ring mains
protection,

earth
fault and phase fault, Directional relay, and microprocessor based o/c relay.

4.
Differential Relays: circulating current and opposed voltage principles,
percentage

differential
relay, line protection, carrier aided protection scheme

5.
Transformer protection: Problems associated with percentage differential
protection,

harmonic
restraint and harmonic blocking schemes, restricted earth fault protection,

Buchholz
relay for incipient faults.

6.
Generator protection: stator earth fault, phase fault, stator current unbalance
(NPS)

protection,
Rotor overheating, earth fault protection, excitation failure and protection
against

motoring,
generator-transformer unit protection.

7.
Distance protection: Impedance, reactance and admittance characteristics, relay
settings

for
3-zone protection, out of step blocking scheme, blinder relay, numerical relays
for

transmission
line protection, microprocessor based impedance, reactance and mho relays.

8.
Over voltage Protection: Causes of over voltages, surge arrestors and
absorbers, metal

oxide
(ZnO) arrestors, insulation co-ordination in a power system

**TERM WORK:**

1)
Drawing sheet showing construction of MOCB, ABCB, SF6 CB and Vacuum CB.

2)
Drawing sheet for Generator and transformer protection schemes.

3)
Study of construction and working of induction disc type relays.

4)
Plotting of I Î± t characteristics of an IDMT over current or E/F relay.

5)
Experimental study of working of a Directional over current relay.

6)
Experimental realization of microprocessor based over current relay.

7)
Experimental realization of microprocessor based impedance relay.

8)
Experimental realization of microprocessor based Directional over current
relay.

Texts
and References :

1)
Power System Protection and Switchgear: B.Ram and B.N. Vishwakarma

2)
Switchgear and Protection: Sunil.S. Rao, Khanna Publications

3)
Digital Protection: L.P.Singh

4)
Switchgear and Protection: M.V. Deshpande

**4. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 Hours /week Paper: 100 Marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week T.W.: 50 Marks

1.
Renewable Energy Overview: Sources of renewable energy, renewable energy
trends, key

factors
affecting renewable energy supply.

2.
Wind Resource Characteristics: Wind speed characteristics and variations, Wind
speed and

power
relation, available power and power extracted from the wind, Wind speed
distribution

and
statistics, Weibull wind speed probability distribution function, Mean, mode,
root mean

cube,
Wind energy production.

3.
Fundamental of Wind Turbines: System components, System design features, number
of

blades,
vertical and horizontal axis rotors, tower spacing, airfoils and general
concepts of

aerodynamics,
aerodynamics of wind turbines, drag and lift, aerodynamic power controls,

pitch,
stall, active stall, rotor power characteristics CP-Î», Power curves.

4.
Electrical aspects of Wind Turbines: Induction and synchronous generators,
Constant

speed
wind turbines, Fixed-speed direct connect generator systems, Direct-connect

synchronous
generator, Direct-connect induction generation, Multi-speed generator systems.

5.
Modeling of fixed-speed direct-connect wind turbines: Wind turbine modeling
concepts,

Aerodynamic
models, Tip-speed ratio, Wind turbine and gear box, Induction machine.

6.
Variable Speed Wind Turbine Systems: Synchronous generators with static
frequency

inverters,
Induction generators with slip controls, Doubly-fed induction generators,
Direct

rotor-driven
generators.

7.
Impacts of Wind Farm Interconnections: Voltage variations, Short-circuit
capacity, Power

quality,
Generation reliability analysis.

8.
Photovoltaic Power: PV cell technologies, Module and array, Equivalent
electrical circuit,

Open
circuit voltage and short circuit current, i-v and p-v curves.

**TERM WORK:**

A)
Minimum 8 experiments to be performed from following list.

1.
Introduction to software tools dealing wind energy systems.

2.Mathematical
Modeling of SEIG wind turbine system.

3.Simulation
of SEIG wind turbine system using MATLAB/SIMULINK

4.To
investigate the effect of the exciting capacitance, resistive load and
inductive load on

the
power output and speed of SEIG using DC motor- SCIM set.

5.Study
of Variable rotor resistance control of WECS using DC motor- WRIM set.

6.Study
of characteristics of wind power by simulating a wind farm composed of a
doublyfed

induction
generator (DFIG) and wind turbine using MATLAB SIMULINK.

7.Modeling
of PV Solar Array using MATLAB/SIMULINK

8.Modeling
of PEM Fuel Cell using MATLAB/SIMULINK

B)
A Field visit to Renewable Energy Plant and Preparation of Report

**Texts and references:**

1.Wind
Energy Explained: Theory, Design and Application : James Manwell, J. F.
Manwell,

J.
G. McGowan 2nd Edition John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

2.Wind
Energy Systems : Gary-L. Johnson: Tata Mc-Graw-Hill Book Company

3.Wind
Power, Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business : Paul Gipe

**ELECTIVES (SEMISTER I)**

**1. FACTS**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Introduction to FACTS : Introduction of the facts devices and its importance in

transmission
Network. Introduction to basic types of facts controller, comparison of HVDC

and
facts.

2.
STATIC SHUNT COMPENSATORS : SVC AND STATCOM objectives of the shunt

compensation
,method of controller VAR generator , transfer function dynamics

performance
of SVC and STATCOM, VAR reserve control ,comparison between

STATCOM
AND svc STATIC VAR system

3.
STATIC SERIES COMPENSATORS: GCSC ,TSSC , TCSC AND SSSC objectives of the

series
compensation , series capacitive compensation , power oscillation damping ,
variable

Impedance
type series compensation switching converter type series compensators

chrematistics
of series compensator.

4.
STATIC VOLTAGE AND PHASE ANGLE REGULATION TCVR and TCPAR:

Objective
of voltage and phase angle regulators, Thyristor controlled voltage and phase
angle

regulator,
switching converter based voltage and phase angle regulators.

5.
COMBINED COMPENSATOR: UPFC and IPFC UPFC - Basic principle and reactive

power
control structure basic control system for P & Q control, comparison of
UPFC to

series
compensator and phase angle regulations. IPFC-Basic operating principle

characteristics,
Control structure and applications.

**Texts and references :**

1.Understanding
FACTS - Concept and Technology of flexible AC Transmission systems. :

N.G.
Hingorani & L. Gywgyi IEE Press.

2.
Static Reactive power compensation : T.J.E. Miller, Jhon wiley and sons New
york

**2. DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Non linear control system: Properties of the non linear system, common physical
Non -

linearities.
Classification of the non linearities - single valued and multi-valued and
explicit

implicit
non linearities , static and dynamic non linearities

2.
Analysis of Non linear control system: Linearization, phase plane method ,
singular points,

construction
of phase trajectories using method of isoclines, delta and lineards
construction

,Limit
cycle phase plane construction using MATLAB . Describing function method, use
of

describing
function, stability by Lyapunov’s direct method, the concept of definiteness,

lyapunov
stability theorem.

3.
Digital control system: Introduction the Z transform, properties of Z
transform, the inverse

Z
transform , Z transform method for solving difference equation . Impulse
sampling and

Data
hold, Pulse transfer function, sampling theorem, Z transform & Inverse Z
transform

using
MATLAB.

4.Design
of digital control system By conventional methods: Mapping between S plane and

the
Z plane, stability analysis of the close loop system in Z plane, transient and
steady state

analysis
. Design based in the Root locus method, design based on the frequency response

method.

5.
State space analysis of digital control system: State space representation of
digital control

system
. Solving Digital control State space equations pulse transfer function matrix.

6.Pole
placement and observer design: Controllability, observability, ,useful
transformation

in
state –space Analysis and Design , Design Via pole placement, state observers.

**Texts and references :**

1)
Control system Engineering. : Nagrath Gopal, Wiley Publication .

2)
Discrete time control system: K.Ogata, Second Edition Pearson Publications.

3)
Control system Engineering: Norman Nise, 4th
edition Jhonwiley & sons

4)
Feed back systems: Philips and Harbor, PHI

5)
Nonlinear control Engineering: D.P. Atherton

6)
Multiple input describing function and non linear system design: Gelb and
Vander Velde,

Mc-Graw
Hill

7)
Modern control principles and Application: Hsu and Meyer, Mc-Graw Hill.

**3. EMBEDED SYSTEMS**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Introduction to Embedded Computing :Overview, Characteristics of Embedding

Computing
Applications, Concept of Real time Systems, Challenges in Embedded System

Design,
Design Process Requirements, specifications, Architecture Design, Designing of

Components,
System Integration

2.
Embedded System Architecture: Instruction Set Architecture, CISC and RISC
instruction

set
architecture, Basic Embedded Processor/Microcontroller Architecture, CISC
Example

8051,RISC
Example ARM, Harvard Architecture, PIC, Memory System Architecture,

Caches,
Virtual Memory, Memory Management Unit and Address Translation, I/O Subsystem,

Busy-wait
I/O, DMA, Interrupt driven I/O, Co-processors and Hardware

Accelerators,
Processor Performance Enhancement, Pipelining, Super-scalar Execution

3.
Designing Embedded Computing Platform: Bus Protocols, Bus Organisation, Memory

Devices
and their Characteristics, RAM, ROM, UVROM, EEPROM, Flash Memory,

DRAM,
I/O Devices, Timers and Counters, Watchdog Timers, Interrupt Controllers, DMA

Controllers,
A/D and D/A Converters, Displays, Keyboards, Component Interfacing,

Memory
Interfacing, I/O Device Interfacing, Interfacing Protocols, Designing with

Processors,
System Architecture, Hardware Design, FPGA Based Design, Debugging

Techniques,
Manufacturing and Testing

4.
Programming Embedded Systems: Program Design, Design Patterns for Embedded

Systems,
Models of Program, Control and Data flow Graph, Programming Languages,

Desired
Language Characteristics, Introduction to Object Oriented Programming, Data

Typing,
Overloading and Polymorphism, Multi-tasking and Task Scheduling, Timing

Specifications,
Run-time Exception handling, C for Programming embedded systems,

Programming
and Run-time Environment, Compiling, Assembling, Linking, Debugging,

Basic
Compilation Techniques, Analysis and Optimization of Execution Time, Analysis
and

Optimization
of Energy and Power, Analysis and Optimization of Program Size, Program

Validation
and Testing

5.
Operating System: Basic Features of an Operating System, Kernel Features,
Real-time

Kernels,
Polled Loops System, Co-routines, Interrupt-driven System, Multi-rate System,

Processes
and Threads, Context Switching, Cooperative Multi-tasking, Pre-emptive
Multitasking,

Rate-Monotonic
Scheduling, Earliest-Deadline First Scheduling, Task Assignment,

Fault-Tolerant
Scheduling, Inter-process Communication, Shared Memory Communication,

Message-Based
Communication, Real-time Memory Management, Process Stack

Management,
Dynamic Allocation, Synchronous and Asynchronous I/O, Interrupt Handling,

Device
Drivers, Real-time Transactions and Files, Evaluating and Optimizing Operating

System
Performance, Response-time Calculation, Interrupt latency, Time-loading, Memory

Loading,
Power Optimization Strategies for Processes

6.Embedded
Control Applications: Open-loop and Closed Loop Control Systems, Speed

Control
of motor, PID Controllers, Software Coding of a PID Controller, PID tuning,
Fuzzy

Logic
Controller, Application Examples of Washing Machine, Automotive Systems and Airconditioner

**Texts and references:**

1.Embedded
System design : Peter Marwedel, Springer publication.

2.An
Embedded Software Primer, David E. Simon Pearson Education, Asia Publication

3.ARM
System developers guide designing & optimizing system software: Andrew N.,

Dominic
Sloss, and Chris Wright.

4.Embedded
System Design A Unified Hardware/ Software Introduction : Frank Vahid/

Tony
Givargis ,Wiley publication

5.Embedded/
Real-Time Systems: Concepts, Design & Programming : Dr. KVKK Prasad

,Dreamtech
Press

**4. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING MATERIALS**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Introduction to Electrical Materials: Engineering materials, Classification,
properties,

Energy
bond description.

2.
Conductive materials: Ohm’s law and relaxation time of electrons, relaxation
time,

collision
time and mean free path Electric scattering and resistively of metals Heat
developed

in
current carrying conductor, Thermal conductivity of metals, Superconductivity,

cryoconductors.

3.
Dielectric materials:

A)
Dielectric properties in static field: Polarization and its mechanism,
dielectric constant of

monoatomic
gases,

a)
Dielectric breakdown in liquid: colloidal theory, Bubble theory, Breakdown due
to liquid

globules.

b)
Dielectric breakdown of solid: Intrinsic breakdown, Frochlich’s theory, Theory
of Van

Hippel,
Thermal and discharge breakdown.

c)
dielectric breakdown in gases : Growth of current, breakdown mechanism,
electron

ionization
coefficient, secondary ionization coefficient, Townscnd’s criterion

B)
Dielectric properties in alternating field: Frequency dependence of electronic
polarisiblity,

ionic
polarization as function of frequency, complex dielectric constant of non
dipolar solids,

dielectric
losses.

4.Insulating
materials: Dielectric gases, liquid insulating materials, solid insulating
materials,

modern
trends in electrical insulators, insulation measurement, electric strength of
liquids,

factor
influencing the characteristics of insulating system. Effect of moisture on
insulating

system.
Insulating materials for electric and electronic equipments.

5.
Magnetic properties of materials: Magnetic material classification, origin of
permanent

magnetic
dipole, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, ferromagnetic domains, Magnetostriction,

factor
affecting permeability and hysteresis loss, anti ferromagnetism,
ferrimagnetisms,

magnetic
resonance

**Texts and references :**

1.Electronic
Engineering Materials and devices : J.Allison , Mc-Grawhill Pub.

2.
Electric and radio engineering materials: B. M. Tareev, Mir Publication

3.
Electric engineering Materials: A. J. Dekker , Prentis Hall Publication

**5. THERMAL ENGINEERING**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Second law of thermodynamics: Limitations of first law, Statements of second
law,

Equivalence
of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, Corollaries of Second law,

Refrigerators
and Heat pumps, Reversibility and irreversibility, Causes of irreversibilities,

Carnot
theorem and Phase Property diagram.

2.
Steam Engineering: Rankine cycle, steam boilers, flow of steam through nozzles,
critical

pressure
ratio, maximum discharge, effect of friction calculation of throat and exit
areas,

nozzle
efficiency, use of Mollier chart. Introduction to steam turbines and
condensers.

3.
Heat transfer: Modes and laws of heat transfer, steady state heat conduction,
concept of

thermal
resistance, Heat Exchangers- Classification and types.

4.
Air Compressors: Classifications, thermodynamic analysis of single stage and
multi stage

reciprocating
air compressors without clearance volume. Construction and working of

centrifugal
and axial Flow air compressors. Applications of Compressed air.

5.
Refrigeration and Air conditioning: Reversed Carnot cycle, Bell Coleman Cycle,
Analysis

of
Simple Vapor Compression Cycle, introduction to Vapor absorption cycle , types
and

properties
of refrigerants, Eco friendly refrigerants, concepts of Psychometry,
Psychometric

terms
and processes, Summer, Winter and Industrial Air conditioning Systems.

**Texts and references :**

1.
Thermal Engineering : P.L. Ballaney, Khanna Publishers

2.
Basic & applied thermodynamics : P.K.Nag, TMH

3.
Thermal Engineering : R.K.Rajput, Laxmi Publications

4.
Thermal Engineering : B.K.Sarkar, TMH

5.
Thermal Engineering : Kothanderman, New Age International Publication

6.
Basic Engineering Thermodynamics : Rayner Joel, ELBS

7.
IC engines : Mathur and Sharma , Dhanpat Rai and Co.

8.
Basic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Ananthnarayanan, TMH

9.
Heat Transfer : R.K.Rajput, S.Chand and Co.

**Semester II -Part VIII**

**1. ELECTRICAL UTIZATION AND TRACTION**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 Hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.Electric
traction: DC, AC and composite traction systems, main line and suburban
systems,

Comparison
with Diesel-Electric traction, traction equipments, Trolley wire, catenaries,

Feeding
and distribution systems, negative booster, overhead lines, current collectors,

traction
substations .

2.Train
movement and Energy consumption: Trapezoidal and quadrilateral speed-time

curves,
Maximum, average and scheduled speeds, Mechanics of train movement, tractive

effort
calculation, Power and energy output from driving axles, Specific Energy
Output.

3.
Traction motors and their Control : D.C. series, A.C. series and 3 Phase
Induction motors

for
traction, Brief introduction to rheostatic speed control methods, drum
controller, Multiple

Unit
Control, Static control of traction morors. Use of microprocessors for control
of traction

motors.

4.
Braking of traction motors: Vacuum brake and Air brake systems, regenerative
braking,

calculation
of energy returned during regenerative braking.

5.
Electric Drives: Classes of insulation, Heating and cooling curves, derivation
of heating

and
cooling time constants, Load equalization, flywheel calculations,
capitalization of losses

and
selection of most economical motor.

6.
Electric Heating and Welding: Classification of electric heating, heating
methods,

Resistance
heating, design of heating element, Arc furnaces, induction heating, Induction

furnaces,
Dielectric heating, Electric arc welding, welding transformer, Power supply and

control
of electric welding, Laser beam welding.

**Texts and references :**

1.
Utilization of Electric Power and Electric Traction: J.B. Gupta, 8th Edition

2.
Art and science of Utilization of Electric Energy: H. Partab

3.
A course in Electrical Power: Soni, Gupta and Bhatnagar

4.
Utilization of Electric Energy: Openshaw Taylor

**2. H.V.D.C. SYSTEMS**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 Hours /week Paper: 100 Marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week T.W.: 25 Marks

1.General
Background: Trends in transmission Voltages, Hierarchical Levels in
transmission

and
distribution, Standard rated voltage of EHV-AC and HVDC, General aspects HVDC

Transmission:
Constitution of EHVAC and DC links, Kinds of DC links, HVDC projects in

India
and abroad, limitations and advantages of HVDC transmission over EHVAC, Layout

of
HVDC station.

2.Grid
Control and Characteristics: Grid control of thyristor, valve-Analysis with
grid control

with
no overlap, overlap less than 60 degrees and overlap greater than 60 degrees.
Basic

means
of control, Power reversal, manual control and its limitations-constant current
versus

constant
voltage, desired features of control, actual control characteristics-constant
minimum

ignition
angle, current and extinction angle controls – stability of control, power
control and

current
limits.

3.Protection:
Disoperation of converters-short circuit on a rectifier – commutation failure,

causes
and remedies – Protection of HVDC system, d.c. rectors, damper circuits, Overcurrent

protection
and over-voltage protection, clearing fault and reenergizing the line.

4.Harmonics
and Filters: Characteristic and uncharacteristic harmonics-causes, consequences

and
suppression-Troubles caused by harmonics, Harmonic filters- Types, Location,
series or

shunt,
sharpness of tuning.

5.Reactive
Power Compensation: Concept of reactive power compensation- reactive Power

balance
in HVDC substations-Effect of angle of advance and extinction angle on reactive

power
requirement of converters.

6.Multi-terminal
DC Systems: Introduction, Configurations and Types of MTDC Systems,

Control
and Protection of MTDC Systems

**TERM WORK:**

Minimum
8 experiments to be performed based on simulation:

MATLAB/SIMULINK/PSCAD/EMBTC
or PSPICE may be used for simulation.

1.
Simulation of converters for DC transmission purposes

a.
Grid control with no overlap

b.
Grid control with overlap >60°

c.
Grid control with overlap >120°

2.
Simulation of basic means of control and study of Vd-Id
characteristics of both

controlled
rectifier and inverter.

3.
Simulation to study Vd-Id characteristics with constant minimum
ignition angle control

for
controlled rectifier.

4.
Simulation to study Vd-Id characteristics with constant current control for
converter

and
inverter.

5.
Study of Vd-Id characteristics with constant
extinction angle control of inverter.

6.
Study of commutation failure on inverter side.

7.
Study of consequent commutation failure .

8.Study
of prevention of consequent commutation failure .

9.
Study of effect of angle of advance and extinction angle on reactive power on
the

converter
and inverter side.

10.
Study of harmonics generated on converter and inverter side due to angle of
advance and

extinction.

11.Study
of effect of filters(Tuned filters and high pass filter) on the converter input

harmonics.

12.
Simulation of DC circuit breaker.

**Texts and references :**

1.Direct
Current Transmission: E.W. Kimbark. Vol. I, John Wiley, New York Edn. 1971,

2.HVDC
Power Transmission System: K.R. Padiyar , Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi.

3.Power
Transmission by Direct Current : E. Usdimann Springer Verlag, Berlin Edn. 1975.

4.EHVAC
and HVDC Transmission: S.S. Rao Khanna Pub. Delhi.

**3. ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:4
Hours /week Paper: 100 Marks

Practical:
2 Hours/week T.W.: 50 Marks

POE:
50 Marks

1.Tools,
accessories: Tools, accessories and instruments required for installation,

maintenance
and repair work, India Electricity rules, safely codes causes and prevention of

accidents,
artificial respiration, workmen’s safety devices.

2.Installation
of Transmission and Distribution Lines: Erection of steel structures,
connecting

of
jumpers, tee-off points, joints and dead ends: crossing of roads, streets,

power/telecommunication
lines and railway crossings clearances: earthing of transmission

lines
and guarding, spacing and configuration of conductors, Arrangement for
suspension

and
strain insulators, bird guards anti-climbing devices and danger plates. sizes
of conductor

earth
wire and guy wires. Testing and Commissioning Laying of service lines earthing,

provision
of service fuses, installation of energy meters

3.Laying
of Underground Cables: Inspection, storage, transportation and handling of
cables,

cable
handing equipment, cable laying depths and clearances from other services such
as

water
sewerage, gas, heating and other mains, and also a series of power and

telecommunication
cables and coordination with these services, excavation of trenches, direct

cable
laying (including laying of cable from the drum, laying cable in the trench,
taking all

measurements
and making as installed drawing, back filling of trenches with earth or sand,

laying
protective layer of bricks etc). laying of cables into pipes and conduits and
within

buildings
introduction to cable filling compounds epoxy resins and hardeners, cable
jointing

and
terminations testing and commissioning.

4.Inspection
and handling of transformers: Pole mounted substations, plinth mounted

substation,
busbars, isolation, voltage and current transformers, lightning arrestors,
control

and
relay panels, HT/LT circuit breakers, LT switches, installation of
power/distribution

transformers,
dehydration. Earthing system, fencing of yard, equipment foundations and

trenches.

5.Testing
of various electrical equipment: Electrical motor, transformers cables and
generator

and
motor control centers, medium voltage distribution panels power control centers
motor

control,
lighting arrangement, storage, pre-installation checks, connecting and starting
precommissioning

checks
drying out

6.
Maintenance: Types of maintenance, maintenance schedules, procedures,
Maintenance of

Transmission
and Distribution System, danger notice, caution notice permit to work,

arranging
of shutdowns personally and temporary earths cancellation of permit and

restoration
of supply, Patrolling and visual inspection of lines – points to be noted during

patrolling
from ground: special inspections and night inspections, Location of faults
using

Meggar,
effect of open or loose neutral connections provision of proper fuses on
service lines

and
their effect on system, causes and dim and flickering lights

7.Maintenance
of Distribution Transformers: Transformer maintenance and points to be

attended
to be attended to in respect of various items of equipment, Checking of
insulation

resistance
transformer oil level and BDV test of oil, measurement of earth resistance

8.Maintenance
of Grid Substations: Checking and maintenance of busbars, isolating

switches,
HT/LT circuit breakers, LT switches, Power Transformers

9.Maintenance
of Motors: Over hauling of motors, preventive maintenance, trouble shopping

of
electric motors

10.Domestic
installation :Introduction, testing of electrical installation of a building,
testing

of
insulation resistance to earth testing of insulation and resistance between
conductors

continuity
or open circuit test, short circuit test testing of earthing continuity
location of

faults
IE rules for domestic installation

**TERM WORK:**

A)
List of Experiments:

**1.**Identification of tools and equipment used for installation and maintenance of electrical

equipment

**2.**Study of codes and practices pertaining to safety in installation and maintenance of

electrical
equipment.

**3.**Study of electrical equipment by visiting a grid power station/sub station and to prepare a

report
of maintenance system adopted there

**4.**Study of the testing of electrical equipment by visiting a grid power station/sub station and

to
prepare a report

**5.**Study of motors and their repair and overhauling by visiting a repair workshop or

manufacturing
unit

**6.**Study of maintenance of electrical distribution system by visiting a sub station and to

prepare
a report.

**7.**Study of Power factor improvement of a single-phase load using capacitor bank

B)
One field visit to substation for study of maintenance work.

Text
and References:

1.
Testing, Commissioning Operation and Maintenance of Electrical Equipment : S
Rao,

Khanna
Technical Publication ,New Delhi

2.
Preventive Maintenance of Electrical Apparatus : SK Sharotri, Katson Publishing

House
Ludhiana

**4. ELECTRICAL MACHINE DESIGN LABORATORY**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
Nil T.W.: 50 Marks

Laboratory
work: 04 Hours/week O.E.: 50 Marks

1.Basic
Concept of Design: a)Introduction b) Specifications c)Output Coefficient d)

Importance
of specific Loadings e) Electrical Material i)Conducting ii)Insulating

iii)Magnetic
f)Magnetic Circuit Calculations g) Types of Enclosures h) General Procedure

for
Design of Electrical machines i) Optimal Design with Computer Aided Design Flow

Chart

2.
D.C. Machine Design:

a)
Step by Step Design Procedure i) Calculation of output Coefficient ,main
dimensions of

armature
i.e. D,L and flux per pole checking the peripheral velocity and voltage between

Commutator
segments ii) Calculations of no. of slots, conductor size, checking current

density,
Calculation of tooth flux density, height of cor, weight of iron, iron losses
and

temperature
rise. iii) Calculation of dimensions of main poles, field coils, yoke and
ampere

turns
required. iv) Calculation of copper size, no. of turns for shunt and series
field v)

Determination
of the diameter of Commutator and it’s no. and size of brushes, check of

peripheral
velocity and gap between brush arms. vi) Calculation of dimensions of
interpoles

and
interpole windings. Calculation of total losses, total weight and KG/KW

b)
Main Pole brick and interpole brick drawing

c)
Commutator drawing

d)
Brush gear assembly drawing

e)
Complete layout drawing of D.C.motor.

3.
Three Phase Transformer Design

a)
Step by Step Design Procedure: i) Calculation of main dimensions of magnetic
frame

consisting
of windows and yoke, Calculation of flux densities in these parts, Calculation
of

iron
losses. ii) Calculation of ampere turns and no load current iii) Calculation of
no. of turns,

size
of copper and final dimensions of LV windings iv) Calculation of no. of turns,
size of

copper
and final dimensions of HV windings v) Check whether clearance between magnetic

frame
and windings are ok. vi) Calculation of winding copper losses, total losses,
efficiency,

reactance
and percentage regulation. vii) Calculation of main dimensions of cooling tank,

no.
and size of cooling tubes, temperature rise, total weight/KVA

b)
Detailed design of different types of core sections used for Three Phase
Transformer with

complete
dimensioned drawing.

c)
Layout drawing of a 3 phase transformer core frame in detail.

d)
Complete Layout drawing of 3 phase core type transformer.

4.
Three Phase Induction Motor Design

a)
Step by Step Design Procedure: i) Calculation of Output Coefficient, main
dimensions of

stator
core i.e.D, L and flux per pole ii) Calculation of no. and size of stator
slots, conductor

size,
by checking current density and slot balances, calculation of tooth flux
density,

copper
losses and weight of copper, core flux density, height of core, iron losses.
iii)

Calculation
of air gap length, Rotor Diameter, no. of rotor slots, conductor size, copper

losses,
flux densities in tooth and core, weight of rotor copper. iv) Rotor end ring
design

v)
Calculation of Carter’s Coefficient and ampere turns for air gap, stator tooth
and stator

core,
rotor tooth and rotor core, and total no load ampere turns, magnetizing
current, no load

power
factor vi) Calculation of reactance, short circuit current and short circuit
power

factor.
vii) Calculation of total losses, efficiency, slip, starting torque,
temperature rise, total

weight,
KG/KW

b)
Rotor and Stator Lamination Drawing

c)
Complete layout of 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor.

5.
Computer Aided Optimal Design Flow Charts For

a)
D.C.Motor b) 3 phase core type transformer c) 3 phase sq. cage IM

**TERM WORK:**

Computer
aided design of any three machines based on above guidelines.

Texts
and references :

1.
Performance and design of D.C. Machine : Clayton

2.
Performance and design of A.C. Machine :M.G.Say

3.
Design of Electric Machine : A.K. Sawhney

4.Computer
Aided Design of Electrical Machine: K.M. Vishnu Murthy

**ELECTIVES (SEMISTER II)**

1.
EHVAC

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.
Introduction to EHVAC: Engineering aspect and growth of EHVAC Transmission line

trends
and preliminaries, power transferability, transient stability, transit
stability limit, and

surge
impedance loading.

2.Calculation
of line and ground parameters: Resistance power loss, temperature rise

properties
of bundled conductors, Inductance and Capacitance , calculation of sequence

inductions
and capacitance line parameters for modes of propagations, resistance and

inductance
of the ground return.

3.Voltage
gradients of conductor: Charge potential relations for multi-conductor lines ,

surface
voltage gradients on the conductor line , surface voltage gradients on
conductors,

distribution
of voltage gradients on sub conductors of bundle. I*I * R and corona loss
corona

loss
formula charge voltage diagram with corona ,attenuation of traveling waves due
to

corona
loss Audible noise, corona pulses, Their generation and properties, limit for
radio

interface
fields.

4.Theory
of the Traveling waves and standing : The waves at the power frequency,

differenential
equations and solutions for generals case , standing waves and natural

frequencies
open ended line double exponential response , response to sinusoidal Excitation
,

line
energization with trapped charge voltage, Refection and refraction of traveling
waves.

5.Lighting
and lighting protection : Lighting strokes to lines , their mechanism, General

principal
of the lighting protections problems, low footing resistance ,lighting arrestor
and

protection
characteristics different arrestors and their characteristics .

6.Over
voltage in EHV system covered by switching operations Over –voltage their types
,

recovery
voltage and circuits breaks , Ferro resonance over voltage and calculations of

switching
surges single phase equivalents.

7.
Power frequency voltage control and over voltage: Generalized constants,
charging

current,
power circle diagram, and its use , Voltage control shunt and series
components, Sub

synchronous
resonance in series capacitor compensated lines and static reactive

compensating
systems.

8.
Insulation Co-ordinations: Insulation level, Voltage withstands levels of
protected

equipments
and insulation condition based on the lighting.

**Texts and references :**

1.
EHV AC transmission Engineering : R.D. Begamudre

2.
EHV –AC and HVDC Transmission Engineering &Practice : S.V. Rao

3.
EHV -AC and HVDC transmission system engineering analysis and design : John
Wiley

&
sons.

**2. COMPUTER AIDED POWER SYSTEM**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.Optimization
Techniques

**:**Introduction, Statement of an optimization problem, design
vector,
design constraints, constraint surface, objective function, classification of

optimization
problem. Classical optimization Techniques, single variable optimization,

multivariable
optimization with equality constraints, Direct substitution method, constrained

variation
method, Lagrange Multiplier method, formulation of multivariable optimization,

Kunh-
Tucker conditions.

2.Optimization
techniques

**:**Nonlinear Programming, Unconstrained optimization Techniques,
Direct
search methods, Indirect search methods, Descent methods, One dimensional

minimization
methods, unimodal function, elimination methods.

3.Load
flow studies: Revision of Load flow studies by using Newton Raphson method
(polar

and
rectangular) . Contingency evaluation, concept of security monitoring,
Techniques of

contingency
evaluation, Decoupled load flow and fast decoupled load flow.

4.Optimal
Power Flow Analysis: Optimal power flow analysis considering equality and

inequality
constraints. Economic dispatch with and without limits(Classical method)

Gradient
method, Newton’s method, Newton Raphson method, calculation of loss

coefficients,
loss coefficients using sensitivity factors, power loss in a line, Generation
shift

distribution
factors, Transmission loss coefficients, transmission loss formula as a
function of

generation
and loads, economic dispatch using loss formula which is function of real and

reactive
power, linear programming method.

5.Three
phase Load flow :Three phase load flow problem notation, specified variables,

derivation
of equations. AC-DC load flow, Introduction, formulation of problem, D.C.

System
model, converter variables, Derivation of equations, Inverter operation,
generalized

flow
chart for equation solution.

6.Fault
Analysis: Revision of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, formulating the

sequence
impedance matrix, fault configurations and equations, General computer
simulation

of
faults.

**Texts and references:**

1.
Computer Aided Power System operation and Analysis:R.N.Dhar, Tata Mc-Graw Hill

New
Delhi.

2.
Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis:M.A. Pai, Tata Mc-Graw Hill New

Delhi.

3.
Computer Methods in Power System Analysis: Stagg and El.Abiad, Mc-Graw Hill

(International
Student Edition.)

4.
Computer Analysis of Power Systems:J.Arrilinga, C.P.Arnold. Wiely Eastern Ltd.

5.
Optimisation Techniques: S.S.Rao, Wiely Eastern Ltd, New Delhi

**3. ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL POCESSING**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.DISCRETE
RANDOM SIGNAL PROCESSING: Discrete Random Processes,

Expectations,
Variance, Co -Variance, Scalar Product, Energy of Discrete Signals -

Parseval's
Theorem, Wiener Khintchine Relation- Power Spectral Density-Periodogram –

Sample
Autocorrelation- Sum Decomposition Theorem, Spectral Factorization Theorem -

Discrete
Random Signal Processing by Linear Systems - Simulation of White Noise - Low

Pass
Filtering of White Noise.

2.SPECTRUM
ESTIMATION: Non-Parametric Methods-Correlation Method - Co-Variance

Estimator-Performance
Analysis of Estimators -Unbiased, Consistent Estimators-

Periodogram
Estimator-Barlett Spectrum Estimation-Welch Estimation-Model based

Approach
- AR, MA, ARMA Signal Modeling-Parameter Estimation using Yule-Walker

Method

3.LINEAR
ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION: Maximum likelihood criterion-efficiency of

estimator-Least
mean squared error criterion -Wiener filter-Discrete Wiener Hoff equations-

Recursive
estimators-Kalman filter-Linear prediction, prediction error whitening filter,

inverse
filter-Levinson recursion, Lattice realization, and Levinson recursion
algorithm for

solving
Toeplitz system of equations.

4.ADPATIVE
FILTERS:FIR adaptive filters-Newton's steepest descent method -adaptive

filter
based on steepest descent method- Widrow Hoff LMS adaptive algorithm- Adaptive

channel
equalization-Adaptive echo chancellor-Adaptive noise cancellation-RLS adaptive

filters-Exponentially
weighted RLS-sliding window RLS-Simplified IIR LMS adaptive filter.

5.MULTIRATE
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING: Mathematical description of change of

sampling
rate - Interpolation and Decimation - continuous time model - Direct digital
domain

approach
- Decimation by an integer factor - Interpolation by an integer factor – Single
and

multistage
realization - poly phase realization - Application to sub band coding - Wavelet

transform
and filter bank implementation of wavelet expansion of signals.

**Texts and references :**

1.Statistical
Digital Signal Processing and Modeling: Monson H.Hayes,, John Wiley and

Sons,
Inc., New York, 1996.

2.
Optimum Signal Processing: Sopocles J.Orfanidis,, McGraw Hill, 1990.

3.
Digital Signal Processing: John G.Proakis, Dimitris G.Manolakis,Prentice Hall
of India,

1995.

**4. RESTRUCTURED POWER SYSTEMS**

Teaching
Scheme: Examination Scheme:

Lectures:
4 hrs / week Theory: 100 Marks

1.DEREGULATION
OF THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY INDUSTRY : Deregulation,

Reconfiguring
Power systems, unbundling of electric utilities, Background to deregulation

and
the current situation around the world, benefits from a competitive electricity
market,

after-effects
of deregulation

2.POWER
SYSTEM OPERATION IN COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT : Role of the

independent
system operator, Operational planning activities of ISO: ISO in Pool markets,

ISO
in Bilateral markets, Operational planning activities of a GENCO: Genco in Pool
and

Bilateral
markets, market participation issues, competitive bidding

3.
TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS AND PRICING ISSUES: Power wheeling,

Transmission
open access, pricing of power transactions, security management in

deregulated
environment, congestion management in deregulation

4.
ANCILLARY SERVICES MANAGEMENT :General description of some ancillary

services,
ancillary services management in various countries, reactive power management
in

some
deregulated electricity markets

5.
RELIABILITY AND DEREGULATION: Reliability analysis: interruption criterion,

stochastic
components, component models, calculation methods, Network model: stochastic

networks,
series and parallel connections, minimum cut sets, reliability costs,
Generation,

transmission
and distribution reliability, Reliability and deregulation: conflict,
reliability

analysis,
effects on the actual reliability, regulation of the market

**Texts and references:**

1.
Operation of Restructured Power Systems: K. Bhattacharya, MHT Bollen and J.C

Doolder,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 2001.

2.
Power System restructuring and deregulation: Lei Lee Lai, John Wiley and Sons,
UK.

2001.

3.
Power System Operations and Electricity Markets: Fred I Denny and David E.
Dismukes

CRC
Press

**SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY, KOLHAPUR**

**EQUIVALENCE FOR B.E.(Electrical . Engg.)**

**Name of the Subject (Old Syllabus) Name of the Subject (New Syllabus)**

1.Microcontroller&
Applications No. Equivalence Same subject to be Given

till
student passes the subject

2.Industrial
Drives & Control

**Electrical Drives and Control**
3.FACTS
FACTS (Elective)

4.
Nonlinear & Digital Control System No. Equivalence Same subject to be Given

till
student passes the subject

5.
Elective I No. Equivalence Same subject to be Given

till
student passes the subject

**BE. Part II**

**Name of the Subject (Old Syllabus) Name of the Subject (New Syllabus)**

1.Switchgear
& Protection

**Advanced Switchgear and Protection**
2.Electrical
Machine Design No. Equivalence Same subject to be Given

till
student passes the subject

3.Utilization
& Energy Conservation

**Electrical Utilization and traction**
4.
Elective II 4. Elective II